The world this week
America officially categorised China as a currency manipulator for the first time in 25 years, after the yuan weakened past the psychologically significant mark of seven to the dollar, the lowest point for the Chinese currency since the financial crisis. The yuan trades narrowly in China around an exchange rate set by the central bank. It dismissed the idea that the yuan had been manipulated, submitting that its depreciation was caused instead by “shifts in market dynamics”, which include “escalating trade frictions”.
在人民币兑美元汇率跌破1美元兑7元的心理关口(金融危机以来人民币汇率的最低点)后，美国25年来首次正式将中国列为汇率操纵国 。在中国，人民币汇率在央行设定的汇率范围内波动很小 。这一点驳斥了人民币被操纵的说法，认为人民币贬值是由“市场动态变化”引起的，其中包括“不断升级的贸易摩擦” 。
Those trade frictions had indeed escalated when Donald Trump earlier announced 10% tariffs on an additional $300bn-worth of Chinese goods in the two countries’ trade war. Mr Trump said he was punishing China for not keeping its promise to buy more American agricultural goods, among other things.
当特朗普早些时候宣布对两国贸易战中价值3000亿美元的中国商品加征10%的关税时，这些贸易摩擦确实升级了 。特朗普表示，此举意在惩罚中方没有履行购买更多美国农产品等承诺 。
Stockmarkets had a rocky week, with the s&p 500, Dow Jones Industrial Average and nasdaq indices recording their worst trading day of the year so far. Most Asian currencies tumbled following the yuan’s depreciation. But the yen, considered to be a haven in uncertain times, soared against the dollar. The yields on government bonds, another safe bet, fell as investors ploughed into the market.
股市经历了动荡的一周，标准普尔500指数、道琼斯工业平均指数和纳斯达克指数创下今年以来的最大单日跌幅 。人民币贬值后，大多数亚洲货币大幅下跌 。但在不确定时期被视为避风港的日元兑美元汇率飙升 。另一个安全的赌注——政府债券的收益率随着投资者涌入市场而下跌 。
Investors were also unnerved by a wave of larger-than-expected interest-rate cuts. India’s central bank shaved 0.35 of a percentage point off its main rate, to 5.4%; New Zealand’s slashed its benchmark rate from 1.5% to 1%; and Thailand’s first cut in four years left its main rate at 1.5%. All three were pessimistic about the prospects for growth.
投资者也对一波高于预期的降息深感不安 。印度央行将其主要利率下调0.35个百分点，至5.4%;新西兰将基准利率从1.5%下调至1%;泰国四年来首次降息，主要利率维持在1.5% 。这三个国家都对经济增长前景感到悲观 。
A trade dispute caused sales of cars made in Japan to plunge in South Korea last month. Samsung, South Korea’s biggest maker of smartphones and memory chips, said it was searching for substitute suppliers of some essential chemicals that Japan has tightened its grip on, which South Korea calls an embargo. This week Japan approved its first shipment of high-tech material to South Korea in a month. The row was sparked by a political spat.
上个月，一场贸易争端导致日本制造的汽车在韩国的销量暴跌 。韩国最大的智能手机和存储芯片制造商三星表示，正在寻找一些替代供应商，以供应日本加强控制的一些基本化学品 。韩国方面称，日本对这些化学品实施了禁运 。本周，日本批准了一个月来首次向韩国出口高科技材料 。这场争端是由一场政治口水战引起的 。
The EU selected Kristalina Georgieva as its candidate to head the IMF, but only after the rancorous exercise concluded with some telephone diplomacy. Ms Georgieva is currently the second-highest official at the World Bank. Under an informal convention, Europe gets to pick the managing director of the IMF (and America the president of the World Bank), so Ms Georgieva is favoured to get the job in October, when the IMF will choose its leader. But it must first change a rule that says a new managing director must be under 65. Ms Georgieva turns 66 on August 13th.
欧盟提名克里斯塔琳娜·乔治耶娃为国际货币基金组织（IMF）总裁候选人，但这一针锋相对的行动是通过电话外交手段结束的 。乔治耶娃目前是世界银行排名第二的高级官员 。根据一项非正式的会议，欧洲将遴选出IMF的总裁(世界银行行长一直由美国人担任)，因此乔治耶娃很有可能在10月份得到这个职位，届时IMF将选出其领导人 。但前提是必须改变一项规定——即新董事总经理必须在65岁以下 。乔治亚娃将于8月13日迎来66岁生日 。
1.trade dispute 贸易争端
If there is a trade dispute, we will submit the claim to the arbitration committee for settlement.
2.trade war 贸易战
The most important thing is to reach an agreement and to avoid a trade war.
3.the central bank 中央银行
The Central Bank has lowered interest rates by 2 percent
4.trade frictions 贸易摩擦
Trade frictions between the two countries had been caused by trade protectionists.