At the beginning of 2002 Apple faced a challenge.
The seamless connection between your iPod, iTunes software, and computer made it easy to manage the music you already owned.
But to get new music, you had to venture out of this cozy environment and go buy a CD or download the songs online.
The latter endeavor usually meant foraying into the murky domains of file-sharing and piracy services.
So Jobs wanted to offer iPod users a way to download songs that was simple, safe, and legal.
The music industry also faced a challenge.
It was being plagued by a bestiary of piracy services -- Napster, Grokster, Gnutella, Kazaa
它其实已经受到了一系列盗版的侵害--Napster, Grokster、Gnutella, Kazza
that enabled people to get songs for free.
Partly as a result, legal sales of CDs were down 9% in 2002.
The executives at the music companies were desperately scrambling,
with the elegance of second-graders playing soccer, to agree on a common standard for copy-protecting digital music.
Paul Vidich of Warner Music and his corporate colleague Bill Raduchel of AOL Time Warner were working with Sony in that effort,
and they hoped to get Apple to be part of their consortium.
So a group of them flew to Cupertino in January 2002 to see Jobs.