But by the early 1970s a shift was under way.
"Computing went from being dismissed as a tool of bureaucratic control to being embraced as a symbol of individual expression and liberation,"
John Markoff wrote in his study of the counterculture's convergence with the computer industry, What the Dormouse Said.
It was an ethos lyrically expressed in Richard Brautigan's 1967 poem, "All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace,"
and the cyberdelic fusion was certified when Timothy Leary declared that
personal computers had become the new LSD and years later revised his famous mantra to proclaim, "Turn on, boot up, jack in."
The musician Bono, who later became a friend of Jobs,
often discussed with him why those immersed in the rock-drugs-rebel counterculture of the Bay Area ended up helping to create the personal computer industry.
"The people who invented the twenty- first century were pot-smoking,
sandal-wearing hippies from the West Coast like Steve, because they saw differently," he said.
"The hierarchical systems of the East Coast, England, Germany, and Japan do not encourage this different thinking.
The sixties produced an anarchic mind-set that is great for imagining a world not yet in existence."
One person who encouraged the denizens of the counterculture to make common cause with the hackers was Stewart Brand.
A puckish visionary who generated fun and ideas over many decades, Brand was a participant in one of the early sixties LSD studies in Palo Alto.
He joined with his fellow subject Ken Kesey to produce the acid-celebrating Trips Festival,
appeared in the opening scene of Tom Wolfe's The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test,
and worked with Doug Engelbart to create a seminal sound-and-light presentation of new technologies called the Mother of All Demos.
"Most of our generation scorned computers as the embodiment of centralized control," Brand later noted.
"But a tiny contingent—-later called hackers--embraced computers and set about transforming them into tools of liberation.
That turned out to be the true royal road to the future."
1.under way 在进行中；正在进行之中；正在进行中
例句：He said he believed attempts were under way for a general expulsion of Christians.
2.boot up 开机；开机后；起动
例句：It should boot up into the newly installed system and allow you to log in .
3.immerse in 沉浸在；沉浸与；专心于
例句：This city had a greater half to sleep, sinking to immerse in the tender feelings of night.
4.make common cause 联合起来
例句：Europe's armies had first to learn from their own failures and their rulers had to make common cause.
5.set about 动手；开始；下手；着手
例句：Then, just when he thought they might not know everything, they set about shaping a snowman on the crest of the hill.