Apple resisted licensing out the Macintosh operating system until 1994,
when CEO Michael Spindler allowed two small companies, Power Computing and Radius, to make Macintosh clones.
When Gil Amelio took over in 1996, he added Motorola to the list.
It turned out to be a dubious business strategy:
Apple got an $80 licensing fee for each computer sold, but instead of expanding the market,
the cloners cannibalized the sales of Apple's own high-end computers, on which it made up to $500 in profit.
Jobs's objections to the cloning program were not just economic, however.
He had an inbred aversion to it. One of his core principles was that hardware and software should be tightly integrated.
He loved to control all aspects of his life,
and the only way to do that with computers was to take responsibility for the user experience from end to end.
So upon his return to Apple he made killing the Macintosh clones a priority.