By the 1950s, Hewlett-Packard was a fast-growing company making technical instruments.
Fortunately there was a place nearby for entrepreneurs who had outgrown their garages.
In a move that would help transform the area into the cradle of the tech revolution, Stanford University’s dean of engineering, Frederick Terman, created a seven-hundred-acre industrial park on university land for private companies that could commercialize the ideas of his students.
Its first tenant was Varian Associates, where Clara Jobs worked.
“Terman came up with this great idea that did more than anything to cause the tech industry to grow up here,” Jobs said.
By the time Jobs was ten, HP had nine thousand employees and was the blue-chip company where every engineer seeking financial stability wanted to work.
The most important technology for the region’s growth was, of course, the semiconductor.
William Shockley, who had been one of the inventors of the transistor at Bell Labs in New Jersey, moved out to Mountain View and,
in 1956, started a company to build transistors using silicon rather than the more expensive germanium that was then commonly used.
But Shockley became increasingly erratic and abandoned his silicon transistor project, which led eight of his engineers— most notably Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore—to break away to form Fairchild Semiconductor.
但随后肖克利变得越来越乖僻，他放弃了硅晶体管项目，这也导致了他麾下的8名工程师---最著名的有罗伯特·诺伊斯（Robert Noyce)和戈登·摩尔（Gordon Moore)---离他而去并创办了仙童半导体公司（Fairchild Semiconductor)。
That company grew to twelve thousand employees, but it fragmented in 1968, when Noyce lost a power struggle to become CEO.
He took Gordon Moore and founded a company that they called Integrated Electronics Corporation, which they soon smartly abbreviated to Intel.
诺伊斯带走了戈登·摩尔，创办了集成电路公司(Integrated Electronics Corporation),他们巧妙地将公司简称为“英特尔”（Intel)。
Their third employee was Andrew Grove, who later would grow the company by shifting its focus from memory chips to microprocessors.
Within a few years there would be more than fifty companies in the area making semiconductors.
The exponential growth of this industry was correlated with the phenomenon famously discovered by Moore,
who in 1965 drew a graph of the speed of integrated circuits, based on the number of transistors that could be placed on a chip, and showed that it doubled about every two years, a trajectory that could be expected to continue.
This was reaffirmed in 1971, when Intel was able to etch a complete central processing unit onto one chip, the Intel 4004, which was dubbed a “microprocessor.”
Moore’s Law has held generally true to this day,
and its reliable projection of performance to price allowed two generations of young entrepreneurs, including Steve Jobs and Bill Gates, to create cost projections for their forward-leaning products.
The chip industry gave the region a new name when Don Hoefler,
a columnist for the weekly trade paper Electronic News, began a series in January 1971 entitled “Silicon Valley USA.”
从1971年1月起，每周发行的专业类报纸《电子新闻》(Electronic News) 的专栏作家唐·赫夫勒（Don Hoefler)，开始了一组系列报道，标题为“美国硅谷”。