America is no stranger to corporate scandals. In the 19th century abattoirs sold rotten meat.
美国对企业丑闻并不陌生 。在19世纪，屠宰场出售腐烂的肉 。
In the 1960s Detroit made cars that were "unsafe at any speed", in the words of Ralph Nader, a consumer-rights crusader.
In the 1990s tobacco and asbestos claims led to legal settlements that have cost shareholders over $150bn.
Accounting scandals erupted at WorldCom, Enron and Tyco in the early 2000s, and by the mid-2000s mortgage fraud was endemic.
Today's crises are diverse but have common elements. The firms tend to be established, with dominant market positions.
如今的危机虽然变化多样，但都有着共同的要素 。这些公司都占市场支配地位 。
Outrage infuses social media and Congress. And yet the financial cost has been limited.
疯狂的注入社交媒体和议会 。但财务成本已被限制 。
Take a sample of ten big American listed firms involved in controversial episodes:
their median share price has lagged behind the stockmarket by a bearable 11% since the event, after adjusting for dividends.
Although Boeing's shares have lost 8% since the crash in Ethiopia, they are above their level in January.
The crises have caused bosses to stand down in only two of the ten cases: Wells Fargo and Equifax.
Some adjustments to bosses' pay have been made. Goldman says that some ex-executives' share awards
could be clawed back depending on the probe into the Malaysia incident. Equifax says cyber-security is now factored into its pay schemes.
可根据对马来西亚事件的调查而被收回 。Equifax表示现在会将网络安全作为薪酬方案的考虑因素 。
Nonetheless, for the ten firms the total pool of senior executive pay has risen over the four most recent years, to almost $600m, according to Bloomberg.
For critics of capitalism none of this will be a surprise. They argue that firms controlled by private shareholders are especially unethical.
对资本主义的批评者来说，这并不惊奇 。他们认为由私人股东控制的公司都是尤其缺乏职业道德的 。
Yet it is easy to poke holes in this. Volkwagen cheated on emissions tests even though it is part-owned by the German state and has workers on its board.
但很容易在其中找茬 。大众汽车在尾气测试中作弊，即便它是一家部分国有的德国公司且其董事会中也有其员工 。
Despite Sweden's cuddly "stakeholder" capitalism, Swedbank faces a criminal investigation for money-laundering.
An alternative explanation is that American capitalism has got out of kilter. It has always been restless and dynamic.
一种替换解释是，美国资本主义失去了平衡 。它总是那么焦躁且充满活力 。
Companies test the boundaries of what is possible—and permissible.
Tech firms are just the latest to "move fast and break things", to use Facebook's unofficial slogan.
But three forces have long constrained corporate conduct: regulation, litigation and competition.
The aftermath of the financial crisis saw a storm of lawsuits and fines on banks.
But since then each of the three forces may have weakened, increasing the incentive for firms to take risks.
1.no stranger to 对...不陌生
Our psalmist is certainly no stranger to afflictions and trials.
2.legal settlement 诉讼和解
A particular source of contention is plans to privatise state-run companies.
3.dominant market position 市场支配地位
To determine whether an enterprise has a dominant market position or not, certain criteria must be introduced in.
He said he had done nothing wrong to merit a criminal investigation