Battery firms like Tesla, as well as some utilities, see a mixture of rooftop photovoltaics, home-mounted batteries and electric vehicles as the way of the future, with power being stored locally and new business models emerging to manage customers' energy use remotely.
But Mr Galan is sceptical that batteries can last long enough to handle intermittency, or that customers will care enough about distributed energy to make the domestic-battery business compelling.
“I can't imagine saying to my wife that we have a choice between a new fridge and the latest Powerwall battery.”
Instead, he believes there is more to be gained by using renewable energy to pump water up to hilltop reservoirs, and letting it flow downhill to produce hydroelectricity when needed.
Iberdrola has already done this with its successful $1.3bn Cortes La Muela project in Spain, completed in 2013.
2013年Iberdrola公司已经在西班牙花13亿成功地做完了Cortes La Muela项目。
It is building a large pumped-hydro storage facility in northern Portugal.
Mr Galan does not dismiss batteries altogether.
But he thinks it would be better for utilities to deploy them to regulate the intermittency of electricity supply in substations, rather than putting them in homes.
His reservations about fully distributed electricity may be self-serving.
If users buy batteries to help them cut loose from grids, network operators would have to raise prices to remaining customers, causing a “utility death spiral”.
Yet it is probable that centralised electricity will survive, especially in big cities.
And do not write off Iberdrola's predictive powers.
“They could see the future,” says Antonella Bianchessi of Citigroup.
1.as well as 也；和...一样
例句:They visited some factories, hospitals as well as the school.
2.writing off 小看；低估
例句:He is fed up with people writing him off because of his age.
3.pump up 打气
例句:I tried to pump up my back tyre.
4.renewable energy 可再生能源
例句:Renewable energy will become progressively more important as time goes on.