Accomplishing change is not just a matter of the company snapping its fingers.
Most McDonald's restaurants are operated by franchisees and its goods are bought from a wide range of suppliers,
so three or four layers may separate the McDonald's head office and the cattle-rancher who supplies the firm's beef.
In the late 1990s, after complaints from campaign groups about the living conditions of hens,
Mr Langert visited an egg facility to find that conditions were indeed terrible.
In August 2000 the firm said it would buy eggs only from suppliers that gave hens 72 square inches of space,
compared with an industry average of 48 square inches. Suppliers resisted so strongly that McDonald's had to find new sources for its eggs.
而业内平均面积为48平方英寸 。供应商们强烈抗议，麦当劳不得不寻找新的鸡蛋源 。
But those who complied found that the mortality rates of hens decreased and egg-laying rates increased, offsetting the extra costs.
Mr Langert found it took a long time to get agreement within the company on a particular subject and then to persuade suppliers to comply.
But once he reached that stage, he had enormous clout;
McDonald's is the largest purchaser of beef and pork in America, as well as the second-largest buyer of chicken.
Another victory was persuading a supplier to phase out the use of gestation stalls for sows which make it impossible for the animals to move.
Human working conditions also caused the company trouble.
One day Mr Langert got a call from a Catholic bishop who was concerned about the low wages paid to tomato-pickers.
Another issue was the use of "trans fats" to cook the restaurant's fries, which were deemed to increase the risk of heart disease;
it took six years for the chain to phase out the practice. But the company has also added more salads and healthy options.
公司花了6年时间让连锁店逐步淘汰了这种做法 。但是公司也增加了更多沙拉和健康选择 。
Was all the effort worth it? It seems likely that many of the people who care a lot about these issues would never eat a fast-food burger in the first place.
But Mr Langert did more than most to reduce environmental waste and animal cruelty. A decent career record for an obviously decent man.
但是在减少环境垃圾和动物虐待上，兰杰特做的比大部分人都多 。对一位正派人士而言，这是一份体面的履历 。
And the franchisee must ensure that the training programs should be satisfactory.
2.living condition 生活条件
Our living condition has improved these years.
The bank strongly resisted cutting interest rates.
4.mortality rate 死亡率
The nation's infant mortality rate has reached a record low.