经济学人:英国的基因史 你认为自己是谁?
日期:2015-03-30 17:00



The genetic history of Britain
Who do you think you are?
An analysis of Britons' genes confirms some myths and explodes others
THE waves of invasion and immigration that have, from time to time, swept over the British Isleshave led some to refer to Britons as a mongrel nation. A study just published in Nature by Peter Donnelly of Oxford University and his colleagues shows there is some truth in this, and that the palimpsest of those events is visible in people's genes—or, at least, that it was still discernible in the late 19th century.

Dr Donnelly's team looked in detail at the DNA of 2,039 Britons from all parts of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, each of whose grandparents had all been born within 80km of each other. They thus, in effect, sampled the distribution of genetic material in the country in 1885 (the average year of the birth of these grandparents), before the large-scale internal population movements of the 20th century had had a chance to confuse the issue. The results divided into 17 genetic clusters, illustrated on the map, which form a pattern that conforms quite well with what an historian might have predicted, but with some interesting wrinkles.
The map is dominated by a DNA cluster that might reasonably be described as “English”. Comparison with continental Europe shows, as might be expected, that this English cluster is related to northern Germany, where the Anglo-Saxons came from—though the admixture is less than 50%, which indicates (again, as expected) that there was much interbreeding between interlopers and natives.
Others kept themselves to themselves. Yorkshiremen and women will be gratified to note that the west of their county clusters separately from the rest of England, and Lancastrians similarly horrified that Yorkshire's tendrils extend into much of theirs.Cornwall, too, clusters separately from England. Indeed, as all good Cornish would have suspected, it clusters separately even from Devon (which is itself also genetically different fromEngland).
The whole so-called Celtic fringe, of areas in the west and north of Great Britain that were not invaded by the Saxons, is far more genetically diverse than its mythopoeic appellation suggests. Orkney, which has three clusters of its own, looks Norse. That is no surprise. It was, after all, part of Norwayfor 600 years. But north and south Wales are different from each other, and mainland Scotland has several clusters (two of which—a consequence, presumably, of the 17th-century plantations organised by King James VI and I—extend into Northern Ireland). The marcher lands between Englandand Scotland, and between England andWales, harbour still further indigenous clusters.
The original Celts occupied a huge swathe of western Europe before the Roman conquest, so perhaps this diversity is not so surprising after all. Indeed, Dr Donnelly's analysis found traces of genetic connections throughout the land with modern Belgium(which is named after a Celtic tribe, the Belgae) and various parts of France—or Gaul, as the Romans knew it. He did not, though, find any traces of the Vikings beyond those in Orkney, even though they held sway for some time over the eastern part of England. Maybe their fearsome reputation for uninvited sexual congress with local maidens was yet another myth.
土著凯尔特人在罗马人征服英国之前占有欧洲西部的大片区域,因此,基因存在多样性也许是情理之中的事情。确实,多纳利博士经此次分析认为,有迹象表明该地区与现今比利时(该名取自凯尔特地区的贝尔格族)以及法国多个地区—罗马人所熟知的高卢—存在基因关联。然而,尽管维京人在一段时间内统治英格兰东部地区,但除奥克尼以外,他没有发现维京人的其他任何迹象。或许,他们与当地少女私下交配这一可怕的名声还是另一个谜。翻译:石海霞 校对:胡雅琳


1.refer to 涉及;指的是

All employees will refer to each other by the honorific suffix "san".

By way of illustration I'll refer to the behavior of rabbits.

2.relate to 涉及;同…有…关系

Other recommendations relate to the details of how such data is stored.

Afternoon groups relate to the specific addictions and problems therein.

3.even though 即使,纵然

I still love you even though I'd like to wring your neck.

Even though I'm quite a reserved person, I like meeting people.