American companies spent $91bn on staff training last year, almost a third as much again as they did in 2016.
That equated to more than $1,000 for every staff member being taught, according to a survey by Training magazine.
This shift is highly encouraging. In broad terms, provision of on-the-job training has been shrinking—
in both America and Britain it has fallen by roughly half in the past two decades. Companies are often loth to provide it.
在美国和英国，过去20年里，培训规定粗略估计缩减了一半 。公司通常不愿意提供在职培训 。
A 2009 study from the OECD, a club of mostly rich countries, worried that
"industry, left to its own devices, may not have incentives to provide sufficient training."
That is because workers may take advantage of their education to transfer their skills to a rival.
Training is even more important in a world of rapid technological change,
where low-skilled tasks are increasingly being automated and artificial intelligence (AI) is transforming many services jobs.
To have a chance of a long, high-paying career, workers need retraining.
At IBM, a computer firm, Diane Gherson, head of human resources, says that employee skills stay relevant for only three years.
So training is "the lifeblood of any tech company".
IBM created an "AI academy" in which employees take courses from a curriculum, provided by Coursera,
an online-learning platform founded by Andrew Ng, an AI pioneer, and Daphne Koller, a computer scientist, both of Stanford University.
Coursera是一个在线学习平台，由AI开创者Andrew Ng以及电脑科学家Daphne Koller创办，两人均来自斯坦福大学 。
Roll up for such clickbait as: "Artificial intelligence process re-engineering case study",
and "Improving deep neural networks: Hyperparameter tuning, Regularisation and Optimisation".
The courses are usually taught online and the staff often study in their own time.
Those who complete a course can qualify for a digital "badge" which bolsters their career profile on platforms such as LinkedIn.
In 2016-18 more than 200,000 IBM staffers earned 650,000 badges and the average employee undertook 60 hours of training a year.
IBM also has a programme that aims to retain workers who might be lured elsewhere.
In the past five years, IBM reckons, the proportion of its employees who have advanced digital skills has risen from 30% to 80%.
(Digital skills include knowledge of AI, analytics, cloud computing, the Internet of Things and cyber-security.)
1.equate to 相当于
The principle of hierarchy does not equate to totalitarian terror.
The market for their products is shrinking.
3.left to its own devices 顺其自然
Left to its own devices, the market will self-destruct.
The proportion of men to women in the college has changed dramatically over the years.