经济学人:日本的交通 票战vs站票
日期:2012-12-08 16:40


Business Transport in Japan Bullet v budget
商业 日本的交通 票战vs站票
Can low-cost airlines beat bullet trains?
THE world's busiest train route, and one of the busiest air routes, is between Tokyo and Osaka, Japan's two biggest metropolitan areas.
世界上最繁忙的铁路线和最繁忙的航线之一连接着日本最大的两个大都市区——东京和大阪。 (
On that corridor, the shinkansen, as Japan's bullet trains are known, were born in 1964.
They whizz 120,000 passengers a day smoothly from one place to another, on trains that leave every ten minutes.
Although humans, not robots, are at the controls, the average delay is a miraculous 36 seconds.
To take all those passengers by air would require 667 aircraft, each with 180 seats, or five times Japan's fleet of Boeing 737s, estimates Macquarie, an investment bank.
Undeterred, between March and August three low-cost airlines will have started operations in Japan.
It would be a miracle if they could help hammer down train and plane fares in Japan, which are excruciating.
For example, a one-way shinkansen ticket from Tokyo to Osaka costs ¥14,000 ($170), and there are no discounts for return fares or for booking early.
But compared with Europe and other parts of Asia, where budget airlines have quickly gained market share, in Japan the low-cost model is expected to take time to take off.
There are three main reasons for that, analysts say.First, all three newcomers have established parents.
分析师们认为主要原因有三: 一,即将投入运营的三家航空公司均有各自的母公司。
Peach, which started flying in March, and Air Asia Japan, which starts in August, are part-owned by ANA, one of Japan's two main carriers.
分别于3月份和8月份营业的Peach和Air Asia Japan 的股东中均有ANA(日本最大的两家运输公司之一)的影子。
Jetstar Japan, which launches operations in July, is one-third owned by Japan Airlines (JAL).
Japan Airlines (JAL)持有Jetstar Japan(将于7月份投入运营)三分之一的股份。
Such ties have usually hobbled low-cost airlines elsewhere: incumbents hate to cannibalise their own business. (Australia, where Qantas owns Jetstar, is an exception.) Analysts say the upstarts will thrive only if ANA and JAL step out of their way, letting them shake up the domestic tourist market.
像这种关系通常会阻碍其他地方低成本航空公司的的发展:虎毒不食子。 (作为澳洲Jetstar母公司的Qantas除外) 分析师们还认为,除非ANA 和 JAL让出场子,即将登台的新贵们才有可能在国内旅游市场的舞台上大显身手。
The big boys could then concentrate on long-haul and business travel.
Second, the budget airlines may struggle to make similar profits to their lucrative low-cost counterparts in other countries because, despite deregulation, airport costs and fuel taxes in Japan remain among the highest in the world.
That could limit expansion, though Jetstar Japan is boldly aiming for 100 aircraft by the end of the decade, up from three at its launch.
即使从3架飞机起家的Jetstar Japan将目标大胆得订为10年内实现100架飞机保有量,但依然改变不了上述困境限制航空公司扩张的事实。
Third, it will be hard to convince finicky Japanese passengers that low fares make up for the lack of comfort and convenience they are used to.
Jetstar and Air Asia are using Narita airport as their hub, which is expensive and time-consuming to get to from Tokyo.
兼做Jetstar和Air Asia航空港的成田机场不仅租金昂贵,而且与东京之间的交通不便。
The main carriers use Haneda, which is closer to the capital and cheaper. The shinkansen zoom out of the city centre, with no reservations needed.
主要运输公司以Haneda作为航空港,该港不仅离首都更近而且租金更便宜, 毕竟时时都有新干线列车从Haneda市中心风驰而出。
Miyuki Suzuki, the boss of Jetstar Japan, says her company's strategy is to use low fares to persuade people to make trips they would otherwise not have made at all.
Jetstar Japan的老总Miyuki Suzuki说依她执掌的公司战略来看,如果票价降低,人们就可能做一些他们以前压根就不会做的旅行。
More tourists, she hopes, will start visiting Japan's most far-flung islands. She says she will not go head-to-head with the shinkansen (though her airline will fly between Tokyo and Osaka).
她希望有更多的游客光顾偏远的日本岛屿, 并且表示将不会与新干线正面交锋(虽然该公司也运营东京到大阪的航线)。
Peach and Air Asia Japan have their sights not only on domestic flights but also on the route between Tokyo and Seoul, the nearest foreign capital.
Peach 和Air Asia Japan的业务不仅涉及日本国内航空,还包括一条东京到首尔(离东京最近的外国首都)的航线。
They may be eyeing the East Asian market, where low-cost penetration lags behind the rest of Asia.
Alas, none of Japan's new budget carriers is expected to be as cut-throat as low-cost carriers elsewhere.
Ms Suzuki says Jetstar Japan will allow its passengers to book through travel agents, which are still ubiquitous, as well as online.
Suzuki女士说Jetstar Japan的乘客既可以从无处不在的售票中介那里购票,也可以选择网购。
"This is Japan," she says, with a sympathetic air unusual for a budget-airline boss, "it's not all going to be self-service."

  • domesticadj. 国内的,家庭的,驯养的 n. 家仆,佣人
  • corridorn. 走廊
  • peachn. 桃子,桃树,桃红色 v. 揭发,检举
  • unusualadj. 不平常的,异常的
  • sympatheticadj. 同情的,共鸣的 n. 交感神经
  • hubn. 毂,木片,中心
  • conveniencen. 适宜,便利,便利设施,方便的时间,舒适
  • decaden. 十年
  • concentratev. 集中,专心,浓缩 n. 浓缩物
  • establishedadj. 已被确认的,确定的,建立的,制定的 动词est