At some point after the war Europeans decided to take more time off, while Americans opted (or were persuaded) to keep their shoulders to the wheel for longer.
A survey by Project Time Off found that the main reason why Americans are reluctant to take all their vacation is fear of being replaceable.
Project Time Off的一项调查发现美国人不愿意休完所有假期的主要原因是害怕被替换掉 。
Other factors are heavy workloads and lack of cover from fellow employees.
One useful feature of public holidays is that workers worry less about bunking off if everyone else does the same.
Forgoing holiday time does not always please the boss.
A study by the Harvard Business Review in 2016 found that those who took 11 or more days off a year
were almost twice as likely to get a raise or a bonus as those who took ten days off or fewer
(although the causation could be the other way around; star workers may feel they can afford to take a break).
Nor do extra hours automatically lead to higher productivity. An analysis of figures from the OECD, a club of mostly rich countries,
in 2013 found a negative correlation between GDP per hour and the number of hours worked across member countries.
Again, the causation is unclear—workers in richer nations may feel they can take more time off. But there is plenty of other evidence.
其中因果关系仍不明确—富裕国家的员工或许会觉得他们休息天数可以更长 。但还有很多其他证据 。
A study of munitions workers in the first world war found that their output per hour tended to decline once they spent over 50 hours a week toiling.
The Institute for Employment Studies in Britain reviewed academic research on the subject
and concluded that "long hours working (more than 48 hours a week) was associated with (but was not proved to cause) various negative effects,
such as decreased productivity, poor performance, health problems, and lower employee motivation."
The danger is that long hours simply lead to wasted effort. C. Northcote Parkinson, a management theorist, wrote that "work expands to fill the time available".
危险之处在于长时间的工作会导致事倍功半 。管理理论家诺思科特·帕金森写到“工作会扩张到占满所有可用时间” 。
Every editor knows that many journalists only deliver their articles when the deadline is imminent.
Workers may be staring at their computers, but how many have disappeared down the rabbit hole of Twitter spats?
The modern world is supposedly moving in a direction where routine tasks are automated, leaving the more creative processes to the humans.
And humans are undoubtedly more creative when they are not feeling tired or jaded.
So enjoy the break, American workers, and maybe take the next week off as well.
Mr. Spero was reluctant to ask for help.
2.bunk off 逃学；早退
It was a sunny day so they decided to bunk off school.
3.get a raise 加薪；涨工资
I never count on any opportunity to get a raise this year.
An announcement about his resignation is imminent.