经济学人:印尼反贫困计划 承诺满满
日期:2015-01-13 16:05



Indonesia's anti-poverty plans
Full of promise
Cutting fuel subsidies makes space for an ambitious income top-up scheme
BARACK OBAMA signed his health-care programme into law 427 days after taking office. Joko Widodo, Indonesia's president, took just two weeks to begin honouring his health-care and education promises. On November 3rd his government began issuing cards that will give poor Indonesians access to three programmes—two expanding publicly funded health care and education, and one giving cash handouts of 200,000 rupiah (15.75) per month. The income top-up scheme is planned eventually to cover 86.4m people in 15.5m households—a third of Indonesia's population. That would make it the largest such programme in the world.
贝拉克·奥巴马在就任总统427天后才签署了他的医保法案。印尼总统佐科·维多多只准备了两周,即开始兑现他在医疗和教育方面的承诺。11月3日,印尼政府面向本国贫困人口, 开始推行三个项目——其中两个增加了对于医疗和教育的政府投入,另一个则向适格人群发放每月20万卢比(15.75美元)的现金救济。这项收入提升计划预计将覆盖一千五百五十万个家庭中的八千六百四十万人——占印尼总人数的三分之一。这一项目的规模在全球同类中雄踞绝顶。

Poor Indonesians were already eligible for various social programmes, including some scholarships and health care. But Jokowi, as he is known, has something his predecessors lacked: money. Like many countries, Indonesia has long wasted vast sums on subsidising fuel (see chart). But on January 1st Jokowi ended petrol subsidies, which will, according to the finance minister, save the government 200 trillion rupiah per year.
The income top-up is being described as cushioning the impact on consumers. But petrol subsidies benefited rich Indonesians most, since few poor ones own cars. The reality is that Jokowi seized the moment: the recent fall in the price of oil means Indonesia's newly unsubsidised petrol costs less than subsidised petrol did last month.
The finance minister's estimate of how much cutting fuel subsidies will save may be optimistic. And not all of the money freed up will go on social spending: more infrastructure investment is also expected. Nor will all those eligible be enrolled straight away. The plan is for 4.5m cards to be issued this year.
And details of how the programmes will work are as yet unclear. The plan is for the income top-ups to be collected using a mobile-phone SIM card at a bank branch or post office. Currently, recipients turn up at government offices and walk out with cash, which makes them vulnerable to crime and the system open to fraud and corruption.
But banks and post offices are thin on the ground in remote regions. And supplying social services in an archipelagic country as vast and sprawling as Indonesia is also difficult. Promises of free health care mean little when clinics lack staff, equipment and medicine.
But as mayor of Solo, a city of 500,000 in Central Java, and then governor of the capital, Jakarta, Jokowi gained a reputation for competence and keeping his promises. Improving social services was one of his main campaign pledges.
In the long run, making Indonesians healthier and better educated will help them become more productive and richer. But the country's poverty line is 300,000 rupiah per person per month. Cash transfers of two-thirds that amount will lift millions above it.
长期来看,加强医疗和教育投入将提高印尼的生产率,也将使民众受惠。该国的贫困线是每人每月30万卢比。如此算来,每人每月补贴20万卢比,将使数百万人脱贫。译者:韦永睿 校对:程蒙


1.access to 接近;进入

U.N. aid convoys have unimpeded access to the city.

How does a private pilot get access to the airways?

2.health care 保健;医疗保健

In Holland, the government sets a yearly budget for health care.

The cable-TV and health-care industries are both being mauled by government.

3.according to 根据,按照;据…所说

The route that the boatmen choose varies according to the water level.

He advocates streaming children, and educating them according to their needs.

4.vulnerable to 易受伤害的

Tourists can be vulnerable to scams and con schemes of all kinds.

This leaves him vulnerable to sniping from within his own party.

  • pilotn. 飞行员,领航员,引航员 vt. 领航,驾驶,向导
  • impactn. 冲击(力), 冲突,影响(力) vt. 挤入,压紧
  • budgetn. 预算 vt. 编预算,为 ... 做预算 vi.
  • socialadj. 社会的,社交的 n. 社交聚会
  • reputationn. 声誉,好名声
  • campaignn. 运动,活动,战役,竞选运动 v. 从事运动,参加竞
  • productiveadj. 能生产的,有生产价值的,多产的
  • eventuallyadv. 终于,最后
  • remoteadj. 偏僻的,遥远的,远程的,(感情等)距离很大 n
  • populationn. 人口 ,(全体)居民,人数