HISTORY is full of jobs that took an immense physical toll on employees,
from miners and construction workers through to those who suffered "phossy jaw" (a destruction of the jawbone)
in the match factories of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
But it is only in the past couple of decades that workers' mental health has become more widely discussed and understood.
The first World Mental Health Day was organised in 1992; the latest was marked on October 10th.
Charity campaigns, like "time to change" in Britain, try to remove the stigma associated with mental-health problems.
一些慈善活动，比如英国的“time to change”，它们试图消除有关精神健康问题的污名 。
Those problems are widespread. A recent review of studies in Europe found that 38% of the EU's population suffers from a mental disorder
(on a broad definition, ranging from anxiety to drug dependence) each year.
As well as severe distress, this inevitably leads to absenteeism and poor performance.
The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that mental-health troubles cost the global economy $1trn a year in lost output.
In a survey of American workers, 63% of respondents reported that stress in the workplace had a significant impact on their mental and behavioural health.
According to a study by the Confederation of British Industry, which represents big businesses,
40% of employers in 2017 reported that more than 5% of their workforce had a mental-health issue.
That was nearly a fourfold increase on a similar survey conducted in 2013.
This higher figure may actually be an encouraging sign. As the stigma surrounding mental illness fades, more people may be willing to admit to it.
事实上这个数字的上涨或许是一个令人鼓舞的迹象 。随着围绕在精神病周围的污名褪去，或许有更多的人愿意承认自己患有精神障碍 。
Society has certainly come a long way in its treatment of mental health.
When Bartleby's father suffered from depression after losing out from a job reshuffle in the 1960s,
20世纪60年代，当赫尔曼·梅尔维尔（《Bartleby, the Scrivener》的作者）的父亲在大换岗后失业因而患上了抑郁症，
the doctors suggested electric-shock treatment.
Bartleby's grandmother suffered from severe post-natal depression in the 1920s; she was placed in a mental home and never saw her child again.
Nowadays treatment is much more likely to be associated with pharmaceuticals
(though admittedly this can bring its own problems, notably the risk of addiction) and with therapy.
1.take a toll on 夺取；对...造成严重损失
This may mean more growth for Google but will take a toll on margins.
There is still a stigma attached to cancer.
3.suffer from 患...病
Many kids suffer from acne and angst.
Hopes of reaching an agreement seem to be fading away.