经济学人:知识产权交易 创意集市
日期:2012-08-31 19:57


An intellectual-property exchange.
Marketplace of ideas.
A new financial exchange hopes to make it easier to trade patent rights.
THE technology industry is at war over intellectual property. On May 7th the first round of a three-part fight between Oracle and Google over patent and copyright claims relating to the Java programming language ended in a decision that denied outright victory to either firm. Apple, Samsung and others are fighting over smartphone patents. Facebook and Yahoo! are at loggerheads over internet patents. Accusations abound that innovation is taking a back seat to litigation. Only the lawyers are smiling.
All of which makes this a good time to launch a new approach to trading intellectual property, says Gerard Pannekoek, the boss of IPXI, a new financial exchange that lets companies buy, sell and hedge patent rights, just like any other asset. The idea is to offer a patent or group of patents as "unit licence rights" (ULRs), which can be bought and sold like shares. A ULR grants a one-time right to use a particular technology in a single product: a new type of airbag sensor in a car, say. If a company wants to use the technology in 100,000 cars, it buys 100,000 ULRs at the market price. ULRs are also expected to be traded on secondary markets.
This is simpler, faster and cheaper than the lawyer-intensive process of negotiating bilateral licences for intellectual property, the high cost of which discriminates against small companies, leaves patents unused on the shelf and hampers innovation. IPXI's approach does not work for all types of intellectual property-it does not allow exclusive licensing, for example-but should make it easier for companies to make money from their inventions. "It's a great form of non-dilutive funding for start-ups," suggests Mr. Pannekoek.
The exchange has signed up 30 members including Philips, an electronics giant, and several universities and research laboratories. IPXI was set up in 2008 by Ocean Tomo, a merchant bank that specialises in intellectual property, and its investors include CBOE Holdings, the parent company of the Chicago Board Options Exchange. On May 4th IPXI published the rulebook that governs how the exchange will work, and it expects to open for business later this year. Its novel approach is ideal for the open, non-exclusive licensing of smartphone-related patents, says Ruud Peters, chief intellectual-property officer at Philips. Good news for innovators, perhaps, but bad news for lawyers?
目前该交易所公司的加盟成员已达30个,其中不乏电子巨头飞利浦,此外,数所大学和研究实验室也投身其中。国际知识产权交易所公司由Ocean Tomo于2008年组建,后者是一家专业服务于知识产权领域的商业银行,芝加哥期权交易所的母公司芝加哥期权交易控股集团(CBOE Holdings)是该银行的投资方之一。5月4日,国际知识产权交易所公司公布了一份规范,用以指导产权买卖,以期于今年晚些时候开放商业性产权交易。飞利浦的首席知识产权官路德?彼得斯称这一新举措将不断开放与智能手机相关的专利、进一步破除独家授权,形势一片大好。对发明家们来说,这或许是个利好消息,可对那些律师来讲呢?

  • approachn. 接近; 途径,方法 v. 靠近,接近,动手处理
  • hedgen. 树篱,篱笆,障碍,防护物,套期保值,推诿 v. 用
  • exclusiveadj. 独占的,唯一的,排外的 n. 独家新闻,独权
  • decisionn. 决定,决策
  • oraclen. 神谕,神谕处,预言
  • propertyn. 财产,所有物,性质,地产,道具
  • particularadj. 特殊的,特别的,特定的,挑剔的 n. 个别项目
  • shelfn. 架子,搁板
  • copyrightn. 版权,著作权 adj. 版权的
  • innovationn. 创新,革新