掠夺艺术品是为了留下伤口
日期:2022-01-14 10:00

(单词翻译:单击)

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Books and Arts -- Book Review

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文学与艺术——书评

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Conflict and culture -- Booty haul

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冲突与文化——满载战利品

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Plunder. By Cynthia Saltzman.

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《战利品》,辛西娅·萨尔茨曼著~^@OMsOqXr

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In September 1797 Napoleon Bonaparte’s troops stripped a huge 16th-century painting by Paolo Veronese from the wall of a Venetian monastery.

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1797年9月,拿破仑·波拿巴的军队从威尼斯一座修道院的墙上夺走了一幅由保罗·委罗内塞创作的16世纪巨幅油画%iF!G@D0lY

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Rolled around a wooden cylinder and packed into a crate smothered with tar, “The Wedding Feast at Cana” was shipped to the Louvre.

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这幅《加纳的婚礼》被卷在一个木制圆筒上,装进一个涂满沥青的板条箱里,被运到了卢浮宫Wwj3R=D31k(

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Plundering art was designed “to rattle foes” and “leave a wound close to their hearts”, writes Cynthia Saltzman.

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辛西娅·萨尔茨曼写道,掠夺艺术品是为了“让敌人惊慌失措”,并“在他们心中留下伤口”(BbC!)%%U4pBJ8=StT

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Her perceptive book traces Napoleon’s systematic gathering of artistic treasures as he conquered Italy, focusing on Veronese’s masterpiece.

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她的书极具洞察力,追溯了拿破仑在征服意大利时有计划地收集艺术珍品的过程,重点关注了委罗内塞的杰作6719X=M~=&OZU6]d*~

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“The Wedding Feast” depicts Jesus turning water into wine at a party in Galilee.

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《加纳的婚礼》描绘了耶稣在加利利的一次宴会上把水变成酒的情景RB2;_L6(kyH2EO2Nr;f9

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Veronese sets his version in aristocratic Venice.

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委罗内塞将他这一版本设定在贵族威尼斯3XSX#J[Qq)o!]lUCqIWZ

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Marble columns and balustrades frame a boisterous cast of 130 life-size figures in sumptuous brocade and pearls.

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大理石柱子和栏杆上勾勒有130个真人大小的人物,装饰着华丽的锦缎和珍珠YkVZ*4X4bQ

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Servants swarm around the guests; onlookers throw flowers into the air. At the centre of the dining table sits Jesus, his head encircled by a halo of golden light.

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仆人们簇拥在客人周围;旁观者将鲜花抛向空中(p@R(TofJM。餐桌中央坐着耶稣,他的头顶环绕着一圈金色的光晕A*R_egP-nte,032&7cDb

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For this vast work—a “wonder of the world”, as Giacomo Barri put it in 1671—Veronese was paid a third more than Tintoretto was for his “Crucifixion” a couple of years later.

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贾可莫·巴里在1671年称这部巨作为“世界奇迹”,委罗内塞画这幅画获得的报酬比几年后丁托列托创作《基督受刑》的报酬高出三分之一@-TRO;&dJ#

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Napoleon engineered his quarrel with Venice.

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拿破仑精心安排了他与威尼斯的争端xAGMQbG+FV]OY+B%

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When a French ship tried to sail unauthorised into the lagoon in April 1797, the Venetians opened fire.

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1797年4月,当一艘法国船只试图在未经授权的情况下驶入环礁湖时,威尼斯人开火了-|8X]~uFYg

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Several soldiers were killed; war was declared.

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几名士兵阵亡;战争开始n.mVz@n7-%1AG_6l^

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Venice soon surrendered.

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威尼斯很快就投降了7]B4.e-~IAEZ0!Y

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According to a treaty drawn up by Napoleon, the city promised to hand over 3m francs, five warships, 500 manuscripts and 20 paintings.

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根据拿破仑起草的一份条约,威尼斯承诺上交300万法郎、5艘军舰、500份手稿和20幅油画Dee~l0LlJ9ePt.

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A French art committee selected the works.

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一个法国艺术委员会选出了这些作品A]ND[@xQr(a

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Even amid the somewhat excessive detail of battle campaigns and negotiations, the book keeps sight of the rich personalities linked by the painting.

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尽管对战争和谈判的细节描写有些过多,这本书还是保留了与这幅画相关的丰富的人物形象;_^tv1IcmS

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Veronese was a “first-draft”, speedy painter, rarely making mistakes or alterations (Titian, by contrast, was a ponderous reviser).

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委罗内塞是一位“初稿”画家,作画速度很快,很少出错或进行修改(相比之下,提香则是一位喜欢不断修修改改的人)Ii&W*fV.PNM0EvHbXv

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After meeting Napoleon in 1796, a Venetian governor described him as “a vain man who believes he is superhuman”.

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在1796年与拿破仑会面后,一位威尼斯总督将他描述为“一个自认为是超人的虚荣之人”%seQWKQkX++B

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An envoy saw him as “anything but good-looking”.

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一位使节认为他“长得跟好看沾不上边”bnd,D);0CKi||Z

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Napoleon’s own claims to intellectual prowess—“a singular thing about me is my memory”—are put in perspective; he ranked 42nd out of 58 in his final military exam.

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拿破仑自己所声称的智力非凡——“我唯一的独特之处就是我的记忆力”——确是如此;在他最后一次军队考试中,他在58名考生中排名第42位TbuDEJ0g0~B

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Jacques-Louis David’s portrait of 1805 obsequiously shows him charging across the Alps on a virile white horse.

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1805年,雅克·路易斯·大卫奉承地画了一幅肖像画,画中的拿破仑骑着一匹雄壮的白马,正跃过阿尔卑斯山UuobFLoE5dBdQ3wN,cV

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Ms Saltzman says he rode a donkey on the steepest parts.

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萨尔茨曼女士说,他在最陡峭的地方也是骑驴子的n6b!Ol;Y3zLW#)(pB

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She is very good on Napoleon’s justifications for theft.

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关于拿破仑为偷窃辩护的这一段,她写得非常好#GqkU|n7Jli

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The French, he said, were doing Europe a favour by rescuing these Italian masterpieces from neglect and obscurity.

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拿破仑说是法国人解救了这些被忽视的默默无闻的意大利名作,这是在帮欧洲的忙+Fq6n=rkUuUl

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Previously only a few could see them; at the Louvre they would be on display to everyone.

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之前只有少数人能看到它们;如今在卢浮宫,它们将面向所有人展出Db=@M9L0y&

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“Spoils of war” became “a public good”, Ms Saltzman writes.

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萨尔茨曼写道,“战利品”变成了“公共物品”ua)-v9fpOFv]AWcb8&

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Meanwhile Napoleon and his wife, Josephine de Beauharnais, dipped into the hoard to decorate their properties.

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与此同时,拿破仑和他的妻子何塞芬·德·博哈奈把手伸向了这些藏品,用来装饰他们的房子epI09bhUkQH42R

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After his defeat in 1815, France returned only half the artworks stolen from Italy.

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1815年拿破仑战败后,法国只归还了一半从意大利偷走的艺术品=42atPQYH8BTiIFPX^d*

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“The Wedding Feast” was not among them, the Louvre’s boss claiming it would not survive the journey.

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《加纳的婚礼》不在其中,卢浮宫的领导声称这幅画经受不住旅途的折腾p6PJVcNW%GS*H#gdz=UG

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Ms Saltzman ends with the painting’s life thereafter, including its influence on Vincent van Gogh and John Ruskin, and its concealment from the Nazis in assorted chateaux.

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萨尔茨曼女士在书的结尾描述了这幅画此后的命运,包括它对文森特·梵高和约翰·拉斯金的影响,以及它被藏在各式城堡里以躲避纳粹的搜查uZ=)uSVIGQ*Llx

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Recently it has hung opposite, and in the shadow of, the “Mona Lisa”—a poignant end to an absorbing story of conflict and culture.

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最近,它被挂在《蒙娜丽莎》的对面,笼罩在《蒙娜丽莎》的阴影之下y1.iGR75Bnh[i。这是一个关于冲突和文化的引人入胜的故事的辛酸结局xPmcKcHj(6ZE+q~qNeq

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译文由可可原创,仅供学习交流使用,未经许可请勿转载x*lD]W~0N.21Ondf

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