七日星期制统治了我们的生活
日期:2021-11-26 10:00

(单词翻译:单击)

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Books & Arts

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文学与艺术

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Book Review

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书评

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Marking time -- The seven-day itch

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标记时间——七天之痒

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The Week. By David Henkin.

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《周》,作者:大卫·亨金pje1apS1yd[4jGW

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In the autumn of 1853 Thomas Butler Gunn got lost -- temporally rather than physically.

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1853年秋天,托马斯·巴特勒·葛恩迷失了——只是暂时的,不是根本上的CzSFHTZ#u^

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On a visit to Mammoth Cave in Kentucky, and isolated from the outside world, his diary quickly slipped the moorings of chronological reality.

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在一次访问肯塔基州的猛犸洞穴时,由于与外界隔绝,他的日记很快就脱离了现实中的时间秩序a%&Qa7^ahb@hK

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Wednesdays are repeated and days go mislabelled.

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重复的星期三,标错的日期9OgPqm9Z=NnOt7.fz01m

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It took around a fortnight, and renewed contact with civilisation, for Gunn to restore his weekly bearings.

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葛恩花了大约两个星期的时间,重新与文明世界连结,才恢复了按周生活的时间方向asLkKX4!n1[_gFiCN,

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The episode, says David Henkin, suggests how fragile a sense of time can be -- especially when it comes to weeks.

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大卫·亨金说,这段经历表明时间意识是如此的脆弱——尤其是在“周”这个概念上hl3Ls2~!a~4[]w

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Unlike months or years, these seven-day groupings have no real basis in astronomy.

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与月或年不同,这些七天的分组在天文学上没有实际的存在依据c|ffYDgPvwbO)ZM

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People from Nigeria to China have thrived without them.

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从尼日利亚到中国,人们曾在没有它的情况下过得很好|(pHgro;B62s|

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And yet the week has become the measure not only of routine, but even of sanity.

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然而,“周”不仅成为了衡量生活日程的标准,甚至也成了衡量精神健全程度的标准%0v1oaDFZ)][D!

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"Weekly rhythms have become so thoroughly absorbed into ordinary human experience", Mr Henkin writes, "that forgetting what day it is constitutes a singular symptom and feeling of disorientation."

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亨金写道:“‘周’的节奏已经彻底融入了普通人类的经验中,以至于忘记这一天是星期几被视为一种独特的症状和方向感迷失65M-uaaWz9eE0GBI。”

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His new book shows how the week came to rule the world.

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他的新书指出了“周”是如何统治世界的K+s)5^u#VmUe4

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Until the 19th century, he explains, the other days were a preamble to the Sabbath for many Protestants.

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他解释道,直到19世纪,对许多新教徒来说,其他日子都只是安息日的前奏k9+eD4ofCwt;G

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Catholics followed a cycle of feast days and fasts.

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天主教徒遵循一个进食和禁食的循环周期y5h.,K(3wj&8FHlJ*GS

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When newspapers, factory schedules and weekly paydays were all rarer, the weekly structure was less important.

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当报纸、工厂时间表和每周发薪日都很少见的时候,“周”的结构也就不那么重要了Ub%.rnwVk+LT,#S|tH

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People got muddled, not just underground.

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人们都被搞糊涂了,不仅仅在地下会糊涂Z~^&ms9^gOD;pP@o;6VS

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As late as 1866, the Louisville Courier mentioned a man getting drunk on Friday because he thought it was Saturday.

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直到1866年,《路易斯维尔信使报》还提到过有一个人在星期五喝醉了,因为他以为那天是星期六Oj1M3TJwgIb;u

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In outline, the story is one of urban development.

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概括来说,这是一个关于城市发展的故事jW76+VJ[1fSpcY2%6P46

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As towns grew and society became more sophisticated, citizens "became differently and more intensely week-oriented, in ways we can now recognise as modern".

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随着城镇的发展,社会变得越来越复杂,市民们“变得不同,更加强烈地以周为导向,以我们如今认为是现代的方式”7Y!C-qO_UNcx

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When his local benevolent society met on Wednesdays in 1859, and choral concerts were scheduled for Fridays, James Fiske of Massachusetts couldn't afford to mix up his days.

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1859年,马萨诸塞州的詹姆斯·菲斯克的本地慈善协会每周三聚会,每周五有合唱音乐会,他可不能打乱自己的日程hqv!hw|[W0OX+Tt;Z

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When Every Saturday magazine landed in New York each weekend in 1866, Bayard Taylor was expecting it.

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1866年,当《每周六》杂志于周末到达纽约,贝亚德·泰勒正期待着它的到来5DtHyTbqtZC~zU8%

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Later anecdotes illustrate the "distinctive air" that individual days came to develop -- the particular associations each subliminally carries.

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后来的一些趣闻轶事说明了每一天都在发展出“独特的气氛”——每一天都被赋予潜意识里的特定联想ohye+I#RBC1ziMD

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Philadelphians once used chains to block horse traffic on Sundays.

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费城人曾在周日用铁链阻断马匹运输=10OcA,]+YqN^b6at

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The advent of washing machines disrupted the weekly cleaning schedule.

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洗衣机的出现打乱了每周的清洁计划on38-EK=+@HxECy

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In due course Westerners exported these feelings to the world.

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在适当的时候,西方人向世界输出了这些情感8L56C;##LP=RZoc4

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Japan formally adopted the seven-day system only in 1873; all the same, a character in a novel by Haruki Murakami is as sure of something "as I am that today is Wednesday".

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日本直到1873年才正式采用七天制;尽管如此,村上春树小说中的一个人物在表达对某件事非常确定时却说,“就像我对今天是星期三一样有把握”fbGTWBNE.2.BzNI1

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That sort of conviction is now crumbling.

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这种信念如今正在瓦解NDPxmh3i(@H1&0f;Q

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French and Russian revolutionaries ultimately failed in their attempts to abolish the seven-day week, but for many people the pandemic has squashed the weekly rhythm into an interminable present.

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尽管法国和俄罗斯革命者试图废除7日星期制的努力最终以失败告终,但对许多人来说,新冠疫情把“周”的节奏挤压成了一个没完没了的现在T8De7EdI+!8+zUx58Ul

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Monday, runs the joke, has been replaced by Noneday.

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有个笑话是这样讲的,“星期一”已经被“星期零”取代_a_zbYJrWfg

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As Netflix offers entertainment on a whim, and morning newspapers become obsolete, Mr Henkin argues that "the hold of the week on our lives loosens, and our place in the cycle becomes in turn less memorable."

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随着网飞公司心血来潮提供娱乐节目,早报变得过时,亨金认为,“‘周’对我们生活的控制开始松动,我们在周循环中的位置也变得不再那么值得记住nUKteY_8G.2=Ty。”

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Everyone may soon start to feel a bit like Thomas Butler Gunn.

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每个人可能很快就会开始觉得自己有点像托马斯·巴特勒·葛恩了!0l_2w^BHJ1(mf6SCZj&

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译文由可可原创,仅供学习交流使用,未经许可请勿转载,Z2EY4zyCzgLU9N7+5OD

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