JUDY WOODRUFF: Next: this year's Nobel Prize in physics. The owner was shared today for work done with high-intensity light. Those breakthroughs eventually led to practical applications used today. And it includes sharing the award with a woman for the first time in 55 years. Amna Nawaz has our conversation.
AMNA NAWAZ: The Nobel Committee awarded the prize to a trio of scientists. Arthur Ashkin of the United States invented so called optical tweezers, highly focused beans that can manipulate microscopic objects and organisms. Gerard Mourou of France and Donna Strickland of Canada together developed a method to intensify laser beams in short pulses, which led to a number of applications, including laser eye surgery. Donna Strickland is just the third woman in history to win a Nobel in physics. And she joins me now. Dr. Strickland thank you for being with us. And congratulations. I should point out that method you developed was with Dr. Mourou, with whom you share the prize. You did that research back when you were a graduate student. Did you ever imagine that work would lead to a Nobel Prize?
DR. DONNA STRICKLAND, Nobel Prize in Physics Winner: Certainly no, not when we were working on it. We did know it was probably going to be important work. But I don't, it's a rare thing to get a Nobel Prize.
AMNA NAWAZ: It is rare indeed. And we have to ask this. What was that moment like when you first got notification that you had won that prize?
DR. DONNA STRICKLAND: Well, of course it is at 5:00 a.m. So you are barely thinking, but at least for me. It was surprising. It's one of those things that you can't really believe is happening to you.
AMNA NAWAZ: That work...
DR. DONNA STRICKLAND: Both my husband and I were there going, oh, my goodness.
AMNA NAWAZ: That work that we mentioned earlier, it has everyday applications now. Laser Eye Surgery is one a lot of people might be familiar with. Where else can people see that work in practice around them?
DR. DONNA STRICKLAND: I don't know that they would see it in practice around them any other place. I think that's the one application that goes right to the public. There are laser machining applications and other things than just the eye that uses it. But that would be carried out in certain industries. And much of the work that's being done around the world is still in research labs.
AMNA NAWAZ: We mentioned as we introduced you. You're only the third woman ever to win the Nobel Prize in physics, the first woman in 55 years to do so. Let me put this to you. Why do you think that is? Why don't want more women share that honor?
DR. DONNA STRICKLAND: Well, again, I don't really quite know. But, of course, when I was doing my Ph.D., there were only about 10 percent. If I went to a conference, it would only be about 10 percent women. That said, obviously, why didn't women at least get it every 10 years? I don't know. It's one of those things. But I think things keep changing, and for the better. So I'm sure we will see more as times goes on.
AMNA NAWAZ: To that point, as you have worked in this field, as you have come up through it, have you seen things changing? Have you seen things get better? It's a field that women are sorely underrepresented in.
DR. DONNA STRICKLAND: Well, obviously, it's getting better. I mean, the last woman who won it was Maria Goeppert Mayer. And she didn't get paid for most of her career to do her science. So I cite her in my thesis from work she did in 1939. But I believe it was the '50s before she got paid. So she was getting paid to be a scientist before winning the Nobel Prize. But it's amazing to me that, as a woman, she wasn't considered to be worthy of even paying as a scientist. That's changed. Obviously, I have always been paid, like my male counterparts. I have never felt that I wasn't being treated equal. So things do keep changing.
AMNA NAWAZ: They do indeed. I should ask you now, as you are giving interviews, being celebrated for your work, you have a chance to send a message now to millions of other young women out there who might be interested in pursuing a career in a similar field. What would you say to them now?
DR. DONNA STRICKLAND: I would say the same as I would to a male or female. You should always be doing something that you want. If you want to do it, put blinders on and just do it. Don't ever let anybody else tell you that you shouldn't do it. It's, I think everybody knows themselves the best. And listen to yourself, and just go for what you want.
AMNA NAWAZ: So, you're obviously sharing your work and being celebrated today. How does a Nobel Prize winner actually celebrate once you learn you have won that award?
DR. DONNA STRICKLAND: Well, my husband contacted the local restaurant critic and asked where he should take his wife out for dinner. So we're going to the nicest restaurant, according to the critic. And that's where we celebrated our 10th wedding anniversary. So now it's going to be for the Nobel Prize. So, that's what we're going to do tonight.
AMNA NAWAZ: Enjoy the meal, and enjoy your prize.
DR. DONNA STRICKLAND: Thank you.
AMNA NAWAZ: Congratulations to you, Dr. Donna Strickland. Thanks for making the time to talk to us.
DR. DONNA STRICKLAND: Thank you very much.
1.familiar with 熟悉的
Most people are familiar with this figure from Wagner's opera.
2.for the better 好转
Our 10-page guide will help you to change your life for the better.
3.a number of 一些
Two significant constants have been found in a number of research studies.
4.in practice 实际
This is certainly a theoretical risk but in practice there is seldom a problem
5.be worthy of 值得
They regard the problem as not worthy of serious consideration.
朱迪·伍德拉夫：接下来，我们将走近今年的诺贝尔物理学奖。这次的获奖者是因为在高强度灯光方面做出了突出的贡献 。这些进展最终促成了今天的许多实际应用 。这次诺奖也是过去55年来首次有女性获此殊荣 。阿姆纳·纳瓦兹也加入了本期节目 。
阿姆纳·纳瓦兹：诺贝尔委员会将该奖颁发给了三位科学家。美国的阿瑟·阿什金发明了所谓的光钳，也称广镊，这种工具可以操控微观物体和生物体 。法国的热拉尔·穆鲁和加拿大的唐娜·斯特里克兰发明了一种方法，可以加强短脉冲激光束的亮度 。这种方法促成了多种应用的落地，比如激光眼科手术 。唐娜·斯特里克兰是历史上第三位获得诺贝尔物理学奖的女性 。今天，她也来到了我们的演播室 。斯特里克兰博士，感谢您莅临我们的节目，这里要祝贺您得奖 。我想跟您聊聊您跟穆鲁博士一起研发的这种方法，他也是此次跟您一起获此殊荣的人 。您还是研究生的时候，就开始做这项研究了 。您可曾想过您的研究后来会得诺奖呢？
唐娜·斯特里克兰，诺贝尔物理学奖获得者：研究这个课题的时候，当然是没想过这件事的。虽然我们确实知道这项工作很有可能发挥很重要的作用 。但我确实没想过这件事，因为能诺奖实在太罕见了 。
唐娜·斯特里克兰：那时候是凌晨5点。所以基本上没什么思考能力，至少对我而言是这样的 。那一刻，我很惊讶，这种事情，你会觉得永远不可能发生在自己身上 。
唐娜·斯特里克兰：我觉得可能大家在别的场合也几乎都看不到这种应用了。我觉得这种应用是面向公众的 。还有一些应用，比如激光加工的应用等，这些都不是应用于眼睛的 。但这些都是特定行业才会有的实操 。世界各地现在正在进行的很多工作都还处于研究实验室的阶段 。
唐娜·斯特里克兰：这一点，我之前也有说到，我也不是十分清楚。但是，可以肯定的是，我在读博的时候，女性科研人员的比例是10% 。我参会的时候，依然是10% 。虽然如此，那为什么女性不能每10年得一次诺奖呢？这一点，我也不清楚 。这就是我们的一个未解之谜 。但我觉得事物是在不断发展的，是向好方向发展的 。所以我可以肯定的是，随着时间的推进，会有越来越多的女性获得诺奖 。
唐娜·斯特里克兰：显然，是愈发向好了。我是说，上一次获得该奖的女性是玛丽亚·格佩特-梅耶 。她做科学研究做了一辈子，却没有得到一点回报 。所以，我在论文中引述了她1939年的研究内容 。但她直到上世纪50年代才得到回报 。所以她得到了诺奖获得者的回报 。但令我吃惊的一点是：作为一名女性，很多人不把她当成科学家，也不认为她应该以科学家的身份得到回报 。现在不一样了 。显然，我本人已经得到了回报，与跟我一同获奖的男性科学家一样 。我从来没觉得对待方式公平过，但情况确实是一直在好转 。
唐娜·斯特里克兰：我想说的话，也是我对所有人说的话，不分性别，那就是：要做自己喜欢的事情。如果你想做，就心无旁骛地做 。如果有人说你做不到，你也不要放在心里 。我觉得，每个人都是最了解自己的人 。请听自己的声音，去做自己想做的事 。
唐娜·斯特里克兰：我丈夫联系了当地的一位餐厅评论家，问了他会带自己的妻子去哪里吃饭。我们会去最棒的餐厅，这位评论家这样说道 。所以我们也去了最棒的餐厅庆祝十周年结婚纪念日 。现在是要为诺奖而庆祝，我们今晚也会这样做 。