JUDY WOODRUFF: Tomorrow will mark one month since 17 people were killed and 17 more were injured during the shooting at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida. As some students continue to advocate for gun control and other changes, walkouts are planned around the country tomorrow to mark the anniversary. William Brangham has a look at some of the questions surrounding this event for our weekly series, Making the Grade.
WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Organizers expect more than 200,000 students in all 50 states will participate in the walkouts. How schools handle these walkouts has been a matter of some concern. Special correspondent Lisa Stark of Education Week has been covering this and is here with more. Welcome.
LISA STARK: Nice to be here.
WILLIAM BRANGHAM: So, potentially, thousands and thousands of kids tomorrow are going to be walking out of school. Have you gotten a sense of what is the message that they're trying to convey?
LISA STARK: There is really a dual purpose here. One is simply a memorial for those who lost their lives in Parkland and, the organizers say, for all students who may live in areas with gun violence, anyone who has been touched by gun violence. But it also is a call to action. This is a protest. They have things they want Congress to do. They want Congress to ban assault rifles, ban high-capacity magazines. They want background checks for all gun purchases. And they want Congress to pass that red flag law, the kind of law that was just signed into law in Florida, in fact, which would allow a court to take away a gun from someone who the judge deems is maybe at risk to themselves or someone else.
WILLIAM BRANGHAM: So, is your sense that it's going to be the same event at each school? Is it going to look different at different schools?
LISA STARK: This is going to look totally different at different schools. Some kids will walk out. Some will hold moments of silence. Some schools are pushing kids to do assemblies, to actually not leave the school grounds. There is a school in Maryland, for example, that's going to put 17 desks, empty desks, in the auditorium with all the names of the Parkland victims. Aztec High School, which is in New Mexico, they lost two of their students to gun violence in December. They're going to gather around their flagpole, and they're going to try to come up with some positive ways to talk about school safety. So, this is going to really look different all over the country.
WILLIAM BRANGHAM: How are school administrators handling this? Because I have to imagine your task is, you want to keep kids in school. You're also responsible legally to look after them during the day.
LISA STARK: Absolutely.
WILLIAM BRANGHAM: But I guess they also don't want to be squelching students' desire to get out and speak their mind politically. How are administrators going to deal with this?
LISA STARK: Right. They are kind of walking a bit of a tightrope here. On one hand, they want students to find their own voices, as you say, but they are responsible for school safety. So, again, just as there will be all sorts of -- types of demonstrations, the schools are all over the map, too. Some are banning walkouts. Some are trying to convince students to meet inside the schools, congregate inside the schools. Some are requesting parental permission if you want your student to participate. So, again, each school is handling that and each district is handling it quite differently.
WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Refresh me on the Constitution here. Students, no matter...
LISA STARK: There's a First Amendment.
WILLIAM BRANGHAM: There is a First Amendment.
WILLIAM BRANGHAM: And it applies to kids all over the country.
LISA STARK: Yes. Well, as the Supreme Court has said, students don't check their First Amendment rights when they walk in the school door. But the problem is, there are school policies. And First Amendment freedom of speech isn't limited. So, schools can enforce their policy against unexcused absences, for example. Some may do that. But what schools can't do is give students a harsher punishment than they would have for any unexcused absence. They can't ratchet up the punishment because maybe they don't support this or agree with the political message that the students are trying to make.
WILLIAM BRANGHAM: All right, Lisa Stark of Education Week, thanks so much.
LISA STARK: Thank you.
JUDY WOODRUFF: And thank you, Lisa and William. And online: Teachers and students have expressed their ideas for stopping school shootings. You can read that and more on our Web site. That's PBS.org/NewsHour.
1.come up with 想出
Several of the members have come up with suggestions of their own.
2.look after 照顾
We’ve asked my mother to take care of/look after the kids while we’re away.
3.ratchet up 加重
He fears inflation will ratchet up as the year ends
4.deal with 处理
In dealing with suicidal youngsters, our aims should be clear
威廉·布拉纳姆：组织者预计，全国50个州将有超过200,000名学生参加此次活动 。学校如何处理这次罢课一直令人关切 。教育周刊特约记者丽莎·斯塔克一直就此事进行报道，她将在这里为我们提供更多信息 。欢迎 。
丽莎·斯塔克：真的有双重目的 。组织者说，一是单纯为了在帕克兰失去生命的那些学生举行纪念仪式，为了所有生活在枪支暴力地区的学生，以及任何遭受枪支暴力威胁的学生 。但这也是行动的号召 。这是抗议 。他们希望国会有所作为 。他们希望国会禁止突击步枪以及大容量弹匣的使用 。他们希望可以对所有枪支购买进行背景调查 。他们希望国会通过红旗法，即刚刚在佛罗里达州签署的法律，事实上，就是允许法庭从任何一个法官认为会给（持枪人）自己或别人带来风险的人手中剥夺枪支 。
丽莎·斯塔克：在不同的学校看起来完全不同 。有些孩子会走出来 。而有些则会保持沉默 。有些学校让孩子们去游行，但实际上并不离开学校的地界 。例如，在马里兰州有一所学校，他们将会在礼堂摆放17张桌子，空桌子，写上所有帕克兰事件受害者的姓名 。在新墨西哥的阿兹台克高中，他们也在十二月，因枪支暴力，失去了两名学生 。他们将聚集在学校旗杆周围，他们将设法想出一些积极办法来谈学校安全 。因此，全国各地的情况将有所不同 。
威廉·布拉纳姆：这种情况学校管理人员如何处理？因为我不得不想象你的任务是什么，你想让孩子们留在学校里 。在白天你也有责任照顾他们 。
丽莎·斯塔克：是的 。他们有点像走钢丝 。一方面，他们希望学生能找到他们自己的声音，就像你说的，但他们也要对学校安全负责 。所以，再次，正如示威游行千差万别一样，学校也是遍布各地 。有些学校禁止罢课 。有些学校试图说服学生将游行示威活动限制在学校里，进行校内聚集 。有些学校请求家长许可，询问家长是否想让学生参加 。所以，还是，每所学校都在处理这个问题，每个地区的处理方法都不尽相同 。
丽莎·斯塔克：是的 。好吧，正如最高法院所说，学生们在走进学校大门时不会仔细看第一修正案（所赋予他们）的权利 。但问题是，学校有政策 。第一修正案所述的言论自由不是无限的 。因此，比如学校可以对无故旷课的学生采取措施 。有些可能会这样做 。但是就旷课而言，学校给学生的惩罚不能比无故旷课会得到的惩罚更加严厉 。他们不能加重惩罚，他们不能因为不支持或不同意学生提出的某种政治观点而加重惩罚 。
威廉·布拉纳姆：好的，丽莎·斯塔克的Education Week，非常感谢 。
茱蒂·伍德瑞夫：谢谢你们，丽莎和威廉 。网上有更多关于老师和学生们针对停止学校枪击事件发生的看法 。更多内容，你可以在我们的网站上获取 。PBS.org/NewsHour 。