Last month Britain joined a lengthening list of electric-only countries, saying that all new cars must be zero-emission by 2050.
The shift from fuel and pistons to batteries and electric motors is unlikely to take that long.
The first death rattles of the internal combustion engine are already reverberating around the world—and many of the consequences will be welcome.
To gauge what lies ahead, think how the internal combustion engine has shaped modern life.
The rich world was rebuilt for motor vehicles, with huge investments in road networks and the invention of suburbia, along with shopping malls and drive-through restaurants.
Roughly 85% of American workers commute by car.
Carmaking was also a generator of economic development and the expansion of the middle class, in post-war America and elsewhere.
There are now about 1bn cars on the road, almost all powered by fossil fuels.
Though most of them sit idle, America's car and lorry engines can produce ten times as much energy as its power stations.
The internal combustion engine is the mightiest motor in history.
But electrification has thrown the car industry into turmoil.
Its best brands are founded on their engineering heritage—especially in Germany.
Compared with existing vehicles, electric cars are much simpler and have fewer parts; they are more like computers on wheels.
That means they need fewer people to assemble them and fewer subsidiary systems from specialist suppliers.
Carworkers at factories that do not make electric cars are worried that they could be for the chop.
With less to go wrong, the market for maintenance and spare parts will shrink.
While today's carmakers grapple with their costly legacy of old factories and swollen workforces, new entrants will be unencumbered.
Premium brands may be able to stand out through styling and handling, but low-margin, mass-market carmakers will have to compete chiefly on cost.
Assuming, of course, that people want to own cars at all.
1.modern life 当代生活
例句:He felt the press of modern life.
2.stand out 突出
例句:Many people were involved in this conspiracy, but three stand out.
3.go wrong 出错
例句:I know only too well that plans can easily go wrong.
4.sit idle 坐视不管
例句:To sit idle, you have to sit very, very high position.