《经济学人》:生物技术专利的法律纠纷
日期:2011-12-22 11:31

(单词翻译:单击)

Biotech patents 生物技术专利 Taking it personally 对人下药 A legal fight over a new generation of medicine 新一代药品的法律纠纷

DRUG research is in dark times, as pipelines dry up and development budgets are cut. But one shaft of light pierces the gloom. Personalised medicine promises to craft drugs for individuals. Genetic tests will identify those who will benefit from specific medicines. Treatment will be more effective; waste will drop. Personalised medicine has sparked excitement among drugmakers, doctors, hospitals and patients. It has also sparked a legal brawl.
随着新药品种开发减少,药品的研发资金缩减,药品研究正处于黑暗时期。但有一束光带来了一线希望。个性化药品承诺为个人定制药品。基因测试将识别出那些从特制药品中获益的人。从而加强治疗效果;降低浪费水平。个性化药品让制药商、医生和病人均欣喜若狂。这也引发了法律纠纷。

On December 7th America’s Supreme Court heard arguments in Mayo v Prometheus. The suit, despite a name that suggests an ancient liver sandwich, may be crucial for biotechnology firms. America is the world’s hub for drug research. By definition, personalised medicine includes the study of genetic mutations and other personal characteristics. However, American law bars patents of nature and abstract ideas. The question is which discoveries in personalised medicine may be patented.
2011年12月7日美国高等法院听取了梅奥V普罗米修斯的辩论。这一诉讼虽然以暗示古代肝三明治的名义进行,但是对于生物公司来说至关重要。美国是全球药品研究中心。按定义,定制药品包括对于基因突变的研究和其他个性化特征。但是美国的法律禁止给自然和抽象的概念颁发专利。问题在于个性化药品的哪一种发现可能授予专利。

Prometheus is part of a series of suits over biotech patents. Courts have been active because Congress has not. A recent patent reform provided little clarity. Congress merely ordered a study of genetic testing. Judges have been bolder: in July a federal court ruled that genes could be patented. On December 7th the suit’s losers appealed to the Supreme Court.
普罗米修斯公司是陷入一系列生物技术专利权之争的公司之一。因国会无动于衷,法庭便积极地应对。最近的专利改革提供模棱两可的解释。国会仅是指示对基因测试进行研究。法官们是更加的大胆:7月份联邦法庭裁决基因可获得专利。12月7日该案件的败诉方上诉至最高法院。

But Prometheus may have greater practical import, says Hans Sauer of the Biotechnology Industry Organisation (BIO), a trade group. Firms are studying genetic correlations that might predict a drug’s efficacy or determine the cause of a disease. Prometheus may determine whether methods using such correlations may be patented.
生物科技产业组织(BIO)的汉斯.萨奥尔说,但普罗米修斯案可能实际起的作用更大。研究遗传相关的公司可能预计到药品的功效或决定疾病的缘由。普罗米修斯案可能裁定使用这种相关方法是否能授予专利。

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