经济学人:庇护系统遭滥用 欧盟或将限制巴尔干游客的签证?
日期:2016-09-23 07:45



Europe The EU and the Balkans
欧洲 欧盟与巴尔干
Asylum system abuse
Will the EU reimpose visas for travellers from Balkan countries?
“Fake asylum seekers”, warns a poster in Belgrade airport, “risk everything.” It is three years since Serbs, Macedonians and Montenegrins got the freedom to travel without a visa to Europe’s 26-member Schengen zone. Bosnians and Albanians received it a year later. They see it as the single most valued prize in the European integration process.


The five Balkan countries may not be allowed to keep it. The reason is surging numbers of asylum seekers, especially from Serbia and Macedonia. In 2009, before visas were lifted for them, 9,860 of their citizens applied for asylum in the European Union (EU). In 2012, with incomplete data to October, the figure stood at 33,530. Serbian citizens in Germanymade 10,412 applications and Macedonians 6,012. Serbs topped the list of asylum seekers there, well ahead of Afghans and Syrians.
这五个巴尔干国家也许会被剥夺这项权利。其原因是庇护寻觅者人数扶摇直上,尤其是来自塞尔维亚和马其顿共和国的。在2009年,当时签证还未对该二国解禁 ,有9860名公民申请了欧盟的庇护。在2012年,截止到十月的不完全统计,这个数字已经攀升到33,530。德国的塞尔维亚公民提出了10,412份申请,马其顿人则达到6,012。榜单上塞尔维亚鹤立鸡群,远远地甩开了阿富汗和叙利亚。
“The increasing abuse of the asylum system is not acceptable,” said Hans-Peter Friedrich, the German interior minister in October. “The huge inflow of Serbian and Macedonian citizens must be stopped immediately.” In October six EU interior ministers demanded faster action to allow the suspension of visa-free travel.
“对庇护系统的滥用日趋泛滥,这是不可容忍的。”德国的内政大臣汉斯—皮特·弗雷德里奇在十月说道,“ 必须立即制止大批塞尔维亚和马其顿共和国公民涌入我国 。”当月,六名欧盟内政大臣要求迅速采取措施停止免签证旅行。
What the figures do not show is that officials estimate that 95% of the asylum seekers are poor Roma. Life maybe tough back home, but there is no overt persecution. In Serbia and Macedonia, Roma are better integrated into society than in most other countries. These asylum applicants know they won’t get it. From 2009 to 2011 of 19,650 Serbian applicants in Germany, Sweden and Luxembourg only 15 were allowed to stay. But they are trying their luck thanks to “the wide availability of information about benefits for asylum seekers”, says a new report by the European Stability Initiative (ESI), a think-tank.
During the months of waiting while authorities decide whether a claim is bogus or genuine the state provides applicants with money, accommodation, health care, schooling and so on. Given that in Macedonia the average monthly wage is 330 euros ($436) it clearly makes economic sense to head north for a few months.
Visas could be reimposed for Serbs and Macedonians this year. If this happens, says a Serbian official who asked not to be named, this would be seen as “rejection and punishment” and harm already falling support for joining the EU. Even worse, it may incite reprisals against Roma.
Tanja Fajon, a Slovene member of the European Parliament, believes some EU politicians are using the controversy to score political points, especially in Germany, which has elections this year. Carl Bildt,Sweden’s foreign minister, says that the visa-free regime needs to be protected but that action should be taken at “both ends of the problem”.
Although Macedonia has now begun stopping some people leaving if they don’t have a certain amount of money per day for a trip, such tactics teeter on the racist and the illegal. The obvious answer, argues Gerald Knaus, the head of ESI, is that Germany and other countries should speed up decisions on asylum applications from safe Balkan countries. After the Swiss did this the numbers applying tumbled. But when in July 2012 the German Constitutional Court ordered a threefold increase of benefits for asylum-seeking families, numbers surged.



1.asylum seeker 寻求庇护者

例句:Fewer than 7% of asylum seekers are accepted as political refugees.

2.speed up 加速

例句:You notice that your breathing has speeded up a bit.

3.health care 卫生保健

例句:The department said many countries had reciprocal agreements for health care with Britain.

4.foreign minister 外交部长

例句:I visited Japan in 1987 at the invitation of the Foreign Minister.