《经济学人》:女人在商界,高处不胜寒
日期:2011-07-28 10:59

(单词翻译:单击)

Women in business
女人在商界

Still lonely at the top
高处不胜寒

Several governments are threatening to impose quotas for women in the boardroom. This is a bad idea
一些政府威胁说要女性需要在董事会中占有一定的比例,这不是一个好主意

July 21st 2011 | from the print edition

IN François Ozon’s latest film, “Potiche”, Catherine Deneuve (pictured) plays a trophy wife, a potiche, who spends her days jogging in a scarlet jumpsuit, making breakfast for her cantankerous husband and writing poetry perched on a sofa. But then her husband, the boss of an umbrella factory, is taken hostage by striking workers. Ms Deneuve takes over the factory and charms the workers into returning to work. She jazzes up the products and generally proves that anything a man can do, a woman can do better.
在弗朗西斯•奥宗(François Ozon)最新电影《傀儡》 中,凯瑟琳•德纳芙(Catherine Deneuve,图示)饰演一个有威望的妻子。她每天穿着鲜红色的紧身连衫裤慢跑,为她脾气坏的老公做早餐,栖息在沙发上写诗歌。但是她的丈,一家雨伞厂的厂主,被罢工的工人所扣押。德纳芙夫人接管了工厂,并以哄诱工人重新回到了工作。她重新装饰了产品,并大体上证明了任何男人能做的事情,女人能做得更好。

The film was set in 1977, when the only women in a typical Western boardroom were serving the coffee. Times have changed. These days no one doubts that women can run companies: think of Indra Nooyi at PepsiCo, Carol Bartz at Yahoo! or Ursula Burns at Xerox. Sheryl Sandberg, the number two at Facebook, is more widely applauded than her young male boss, Mark Zuckerberg.
这部电影是以1977年为时代背景,此时在一个普通西方董事会会议室中,仅有的女性是服务咖啡的。时过境迁,而今女性毫无疑问可以经营公司:想象百事可乐公司的英德拉•努依(Indra Nooyi),雅虎的卡罗尔•巴茨(Carol Bartz)或者施乐公司的乌尔苏拉•伯恩斯(Ursula Burns)。Facebook的二把手谢勒尔•桑德伯格(Sheryl Sandberg),比他的年轻的男上司马克•扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)更加广受称赞。

Yet the number of female bosses of large firms remains stubbornly small. Not a single one on France’s CAC 40 share index or on Germany’s DAX index is run by a woman. In America, only 15 chief executives of Fortune 500 companies are women. Britain does better, but not much: five of the FTSE-100 firms have female bosses.
然而,大型公司的女一把手数量仍然相当少。法国CAC-40股价指数或者德国DAX指数所涉及的公司均不是女性所掌控。在美国,财富500强企业中,只有15家的首席执行官为女性。英国方面相对来说好一些,单也不太多。富时指数所涉及的100家公司中,5家拥有女老板。

Several governments, especially in Europe, have decided that radical action is required to increase the number of women in the executive suite. Norway passed a law in 2003 that obliged all publicly listed firms to reserve 40% of the seats on their boards for women by 2008. Spain passed a similar law in 2007; France earlier this year. The Netherlands is working on one.
一些政府,尤其位于欧洲的政府,已经决定为了增加女性在经理层的数量,需要采取根本性的措施。挪威在2003年通过一项法案,要求到2008年,所有公开上市的公司有义务为女性保留董事会中40%的席位。西班牙在2007年通过了一项相似的法案;法国则是在今年早些时候。荷兰正在起草此类法案。

On July 6th the European Parliament passed a resolution calling for EU-wide legislation stipulating that at least 40% of seats on listed companies’ supervisory boards will be reserved for women by 2020. This does not oblige member states to do anything, but it reflects a spreading mood. The German government is considering whether to impose quotas. America is not, but new rules from the Securities and Exchange Commission will require firms to reveal what, if anything, they are doing to increase diversity at the top table.
在7月16日,欧洲议会通过了一项决议,要求欧盟范围内立法规定:在到2020年上市公司监事会中应为女性保留至少40%的席位。这项决议并没有对各成员国做出任何要求,但是它却反应出了一个广泛的心情。德国政府正在考虑是否实施定额。美国并没有如此,但是证券交易委员会的新规定要求要求公司(如果有的话)公布起其在公司高层多样化中所做出的行动。

Viviane Reding, the EU commissioner for justice, argues that compulsion is the only way to overcome entrenched discrimination. For a whole year she has tried to cajole companies to take voluntary measures to promote more women. In March, she posted a “Women on the Board Pledge for Europe” on her website. This allows companies to promise that women will make up 30% of their boards by 2015 and 40% by 2020. Only seven companies have signed up so far. Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton (LVMH), a French luxury-goods maker, added itself rather ostentatiously on July 12th. But cynics doubt that this owed much to the commissioner’s powers of persuasion. LVMH was only pledging to do what the new French law already obliges it to.

欧盟司法部部长薇薇安•雷丁提出,强制力是战胜已根深蒂固的歧视的唯一方式。过去一整年,她一直在试着说服公司志愿采取措施来为更多的女性升职。今年3月份,她在其个人网站上发布了一项名为“Women on the Board Pledge for Europe”的公告。该公告允许公司承诺:到2015年女性成员会占公司董事会成员的30%,到2020年,这一数字为40%。目前,只有7家公司署名。7月12日,法国奢侈品制造商路易威登(LVMH)相当炫耀地签署了承诺。但是有人怀疑说这要大部分归功于雷丁的说服力。路易威登仅仅承诺它将按照法国新法案的规定来做。

There is a powerful business case for hiring more women to run companies. They are more likely to understand the tastes and aspirations of the largest group of consumers in the world, namely women. They represent an underfished pool of talent. And there is evidence that companies with more women in top jobs perform better than those run by men only.
女性更加可能懂得世界上最大的消费者群体的喜好和愿望。他们代表的是 。有证据表明高层中女性人数更多的公司表现的比那些仅有男性掌控的公司要好的多。以下是一个招募更多女性来经营公司的一个强有力的商业案例。

McKinsey, a consultancy, recently looked at 89 listed companies in Europe with a very high proportion of women in senior management posts and compared their financial performance with the average for firms in the same industry. It found that these firms enjoyed a higher return on equity, fatter operating profits and a more buoyant share price. The authors described the correlation between promoting women and doing well as “striking”, though they admitted that they could not prove what was causing what. It is possible that firms that are already doing well tend to hire more female directors.
咨询公司麦肯锡最近着眼于欧洲的89家上市公司,这些公司的高级管理职位中女性占据了很大的一个比例。它将这些公司的业绩状况与相同产业中的普通公司进行比较,结果发现,这些公司享有更高的净资产收益,更多的营业收益以及更加上扬的股价。咨询人员将晋升女性和公司业绩表现良好之间的关系形容为“给人深刻印象的”,尽管他们承认他们无法证明孰因孰果。可能是表现依然良好的公司倾向于雇佣更多的女性主管。

Proponents of quotas cite the superior performance of firms with female directors as evidence that quotas will benefit companies and their shareholders. Sceptics doubt this. The women that companies voluntarily appoint to boards are mostly excellent (indeed, they may have had to be particularly talented to overcome the barriers in their way). The effect of quotas, however, will be to elevate women who would not otherwise get onto the board. It would be surprising if they proved as able as those appointed without such help.
定额制的推崇者们认为该制度能对公司和股东都有益,他们将拥有女性掌舵者的公司的优越表现作为支撑这一观点的证据。持怀疑态度的人对次表示异议。公司自愿任命的女性董事会成员是最优秀的(事实上,他们可能是特别有才华的,已然跨越了她们职业道路上的障碍)。然而,定额制将会使那些本不够董事会成员资格的女性得到晋升。如果因定额制得到晋升的女性在在没有此帮助的情况下,能证明她们能表现出与那些得到任命的人一样的能力,这将会是令人惊讶的。

The evidence from Norway, the first European country to impose strict quotas, suggests that compulsion has been bad for business. Norwegian boards, which were 9% female in 2003, were ordered to become 40% female within five years. Many reached that target by window-dressing. The proportion of board members in Norway who are female is nearly three times greater than the proportion of executive directors (see chart).
来自挪威(第一个实施严格的定额制的欧洲国家)的证据显示,强制对商业来说并不是一件好事。在2003年,挪威公司的女性董事会成员仅占总数的9%。挪威公司被要求在5年内将其女性董事会成员的比例提高到40%。很多公司在窗口关闭前达到了这一目标。挪威公司女性董事会成员的比例已经是执行董事中女性比例的3倍之多。

To obey the law, Norwegian firms promoted many women who were less experienced than the directors they had before. These new hires appear to have done a poor job. A study by Amy Dittmar and Kenneth Ahern of the Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan found that firms that were forced to increase the share of women on their boards by more than ten percentage points saw one measure of corporate value (the ratio of market capitalisation to the replacement value of assets, known as Tobin’s Q) fall by 18%.
为了遵从法律,挪威公司提拔了许多女性,这些与之前的主管们相比显得缺乏经验。这些新进雇佣者的工作表现欠佳。密歇根大学罗斯商学院的艾米•迪特马(Amy Dittmar)和肯尼斯•赛尔特(Kenneth Ahern)的一项研究发现,公司被迫增加女性董事会成员比例超过10个百分点将会导致一项公司价值测量数据(托宾Q比率,即企业市场价值与资本重置成本之比)下降18个百分点。

Out of proportion
比例失衡

If quotas aren’t the answer, what is? The question is fiendishly complex. In most rich countries, women do as well as men or even better at school and university. In America, most new master’s degrees are awarded to women. Women also hold more than half of the entry-level jobs at American blue-chip companies.
如果实施定额制不是解决性别失衡的办法,那么该采用什么政策呢?这个问题极度复杂。在大部分的富裕国家,女性在教育方面与男性不相上下,甚至比其更加优秀。在美国,大部分的新授博士学位授予了女性。在美国的一流公司,初级职位的一半以上也有女性占据。

But corporate women start to fall behind their male peers right from the beginning. They are less aggressive than men when negotiating their first salary and every subsequent pay rise. Linda Babcock of Carnegie Mellon University found that her male graduate students secured starting salaries 7.6% higher than her female graduate students. In general, men are four times more likely to ask for a pay rise than women are. Compounded over time, this makes a huge difference.
但是白领女性也正是在职业生涯开始阶段开始落后于她们的男性同伴。她们在协商第一份薪水以及在接下来的提薪过程中,与男性相比显得缺乏侵略性。卡耐基梅隆大学的琳达•巴布科克(Linda Babcock)发现,她的本科毕业生中,男性获得的起薪要比女性高出7.6个百分点。

The higher you gaze up the corporate ladder, the fewer women you see. According to Catalyst, a researcher in New York, women are 37% of the middle managers in big American firms, 28% of the senior managers and a mere 14% of executive-committee members.
你所关注的公司层级越高,你看到的女性也越来越少。据纽约的一名研究员卡特里斯(Catalyst)称,美国大型公司各层级的女性比例中,中层经理为37%,高层经理为28%,执行董事会成员中仅仅只有14%。

Is discrimination to blame? While firms that discriminate a lot will be eclipsed by those that promote on merit (and possibly sued), that can take time. And men do persistently underestimate women, argues Herminia Ibarra of INSEAD, a business school in France. Ms Ibarra looked at more than 20,000 assessments of INSEAD’s executive students. The men on the faculty judged the women to be just as capable as the men (or more so) in most areas, but thought that they lacked strategic vision. No such lack was seen when their female colleagues judged the students.
这应该归咎于性别歧视么?当根据业绩(也可能是请求的)提拔的公司使歧视十分严重的公司黯然失色时,消除性别歧视可以从容进行。法国的一家商学,即院欧洲工商管理学院的赫米尼娅•伊芭拉(Herminia Ibarra)说道,男性固执地低估女性。伊芭拉女士研究了超过20000分欧洲工商管理学院的学生的学习评估报告。男性教职人员认为女性在大部分领域和男性一样有才华(或者甚之),但是同时他们也认为女性缺乏战略眼光。但是在他们的女性同事所作的评估中,却没有发现这种缺乏战略眼光的评价。

The way patronage and promotion work within the corporate world may count against women. Nearly all the executives who rise to the top have had a powerful backer, according to Sylvia Ann Hewlett, the author of “The Sponsor Effect”, a report for theHarvard Business Review. Yet women often fail to cultivate what Ms Hewlett calls “relationship capital”. They hesitate to call in favours for fear of seeming pushy. And many are afraid of the gossip that a close relationship with a senior male colleague might provoke.
企业界任免和晋升的工作方式或许会对女性不利。西尔维娅•安•休莱特(Sylvia Ann Hewlett)是《哈弗商业评论》的一篇报道《投资人效应》的作者,她认为:几乎所有升到高层的高管们都有一个强大的支持者。然而女性却经常不能培养出一种休莱特女士所称的“关系资本”。她们不愿意寻求支持,因为她们害怕这样做会显得过于爱出风头。同时许多也担与一个男高层同事有着亲密关系,会有流言蜚语产生。

No doubt all of this plays its part. But a much bigger obstacle to putting more women in boardrooms is that so many struggle to balance work and a family.
毫无疑问,所有的这些都会有影响,但是,阻碍更多的女性进入董事会的更大的一个障碍是,太多的女性疲于在工作和家庭之间寻求平衡。

In all societies, at least for now, women shoulder most of the burden of looking after children and ageing parents. European women devote twice as much time as men to domestic tasks, according to McKinsey. It varies from country to country. Latin men are slacker than Nordics. Italian men spend only 1.3 hours a day on domestic chores, whereas Italian women spend 5.2 hours. In Sweden, the ratio is a somewhat fairer 2.3 hours to 3.4.
在所有的社会中,至少在目前,女性承担了大部分抚养子女,照顾年迈的父母的重担。据麦肯锡称,欧洲女性贡献在家庭事务中的时间是男性的两倍之多。不同国家之间,男女花费在家务上的时间也有所不通过。拉丁男人比日耳曼男人更加懒惰。意大利男性每天花费在家务上的时间只有1.3个小时,而女性的这一数字为5.2小时。在瑞典,男女花费在家务上的时间某种程度上更加均衡些,分别是2.3和3.4个小时。

Partly because it is so tricky to juggle kids and a career, many highly able women opt for jobs with predictable hours, such as human resources or accounting. They also gravitate towards fields where their skills are less likely to become obsolete if they take a career break, which is perhaps one reason why nearly two-thirds of new American law graduates are female but only 18% of engineers.
在一定程度上,由于很难在孩子和事业之中找到平衡,许多非常有能力的女性选择工作时间可预测的工作,比如人力资源或者会计。她们也被一些领域的工作所吸引,在这些领域中,如果她们停止工作一段时间后,她们的技能不太可能过时。为什么美国法律专业毕业生中近乎三分之二为女性,而工程专业中只有18%?上述也许会是原因之一。

A study by the Centre for Work-Life Policy, a think-tank based in New York, found that, in 2009, 31% of American women had taken a career break (for an average of 2.7 years) and 66% had switched to working part-time or flexible-time in order to balance work and family. Having left the fast track, many women find it hard to get back on.
纽约职业生涯策略中心(一家智囊机构)的一项研究发现,在2009年,有31%的美国女性的职业生涯中断过(平均2.7年),同时有66%为了家庭和工作的平衡转向了兼职工作或者自由职业。在一度离开快速的工作轨道之后,许多女性发现她们很难再回归了。

A juggling act

Some governments try hard to help women combine a career and family. France and the Scandinavian countries help with child care. Crèches and nurseries are subsidised. State schools will hang on to the little monsters well into the evening. This contrasts starkly with American and British schools, which boot them out long before an adult’s work day is over. American parents must also square the circle of ultra-short holidays for grown-ups and absurdly long ones for kids.
一些政府正非常努力的帮助女性将他们的工作和家庭结合起来。法国和斯堪的纳维亚半岛国家在幼儿保育方面来帮助女性。育婴堂和托儿所受到政府的财政补贴。公立学校将会很好地照顾这些小恶魔们直到入夜。这与美国和英国学校的做法形成鲜明的对比,这两国的学校早在成人下班之前就把孩子赶了出去。美国父母自己有非常短的假期已经是很困难的了,而荒谬的是孩子们却又很长的假期。

German parents enjoy 14 months of Elterngeld (taxpayer-funded parental leave). The aim is to encourage women to take
shorter breaks from their job after giving birth. The law, which passed in 2006, was pushed by Ursula von der Leyen, the then family minister (and a mother of seven). Ms von der Leyen also sponsored a 2008 law promising every one-year-old the right to a free nursery place by 2013
德国的父母可以享受14个月的“父母金“(纳税人资助的产假)。这一福利的目的是鼓励女性在产后远离工作,休息一段时间。该法案由家庭部长,同时也是7个孩子的母亲——乌尔苏拉•范得莱恩(Ursula von der Leyen)促成,与2006年获得通过。范得莱恩女士也支持了2008年的一项法案,该法案承诺在2013年,将会为每一个一岁的婴儿提供免费托儿的权利。

Now the labour minister, Ms von der Leyen is pushing hard for Germany to introduce Norwegian-style mandatory quotas for women in boardrooms. German companies are scared. Some are setting themselves voluntary targets in the hope of avoiding state coercion.
现在,作为劳工部部长的范得莱恩女士正在积极向德国介绍挪威模式,即为女性在董事会中人数进行强制的定额。德国公司非常害怕。为了避免受到国家强制,一些公司已经自主建立了他们自己的目标。

Deutsche Telekom, a German media behemoth, has declared that 30% of its middle and upper management jobs will be filled by women by 2015. “We have tried mentoring, coaching and networks, but nothing worked,” says Anne Wenders, a spokeswoman for the company. Women made up 30% of Deutsche Telekom’s staff and 13% of the company’s top managers in Germany when the policy was introduced last year. These numbers have yet to budge. Still, following Deutsche Telekom’s example, all 30 companies in the DAX index recently agreed to set themselves similar goals.
德国媒体巨头德国电信公司宣称,到2015年之前,将会有15%的中高层职位被女性所占据。该公司发言人安妮•文德斯(Anne Wenders)说:“我们已经尝试过师徒制、辅导手段以及网络,但是均未奏效。”当德国电信公司的政策与去年开始实施时,女职员占总数的30%,高级经理也只有13%。目前,这些数字仍然没有变化。尽管如此,以德国电信公司为榜样,所有德国综合指数所涉及的30家公司最近均答应制定与其相似的目标。

Women bring unique strengths to a company, reckons Lisa Gersh, the boss of Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia, a merchandising and media firm founded by a lifestyle guru. They are more collaborative than men, says Ms Gersh, and better at multitasking. Those with children quickly become efficient. They know that they have to be home at a certain time.
玛莎斯图尔特生活全媒体公司总裁丽萨•盖斯认为,女性将为会一家公司带来独特的力量。该公司是由一名生活大师创办的企划和传媒公司。女性比男性更懂得协作,更善于同时处理多项业务,盖斯小姐说道。这些已经有孩子的女性将迅速变得有效率。她们晓得她们必须在特定的时间呆在家里。

Companies everywhere are trying to figure out ways to help employees juggle their work and family life. Technology should make this easier. Thanks to broadband internet, many tasks can be done from home. Nearly 20% of American employees telecommuted last year. Some female executives routinely take calls while outside the school gates. As the tussle for talent intensifies, such scenes will grow more common.
世界各地的公司都在试图寻找合适的途径来帮助雇员平衡她们的工作和家庭生活。技术应该会使之变得简单。由于有了宽带因特网,许多工作可以在家里进行。去年,接近20%的美国志愿进行远距离办公。一些女高管经常会在学校大门外等待的时候接电话。伴随着人才争夺的加剧,这样的场景将会变得更加普遍。

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重点单词
  • resolutionn. 决心,决定,坚决,决议,解决,分辨率
  • strategicadj. 战略的,重要的,基本的
  • imposev. 加上,课征,强迫,征收(税款)
  • circlen. 圈子,圆周,循环 v. 环绕,盘旋,包围
  • trophyn. 奖品,战利品
  • persuasionn. 说服,劝说,信念
  • aggressiveadj. 侵略的,有进取心的,好斗的
  • blamen. 过失,责备 vt. 把 ... 归咎于,责备
  • gurun. 古鲁(指印度教等宗教的宗师或领袖), 领袖,专家
  • corporateadj. 社团的,法人的,共同的,全体的