《经济学人》:印第安纳州毅然通过工作权利法案
日期:2012-02-09 09:56

(单词翻译:单击)

INDIANA, like many manufacturing states in the Midwest, has long felt the pain of seeing jobs go overseas. In his seven years as Republican governor, Mitch Daniels's response has been to offer a strong diet of pro-business legislation. In the past few years Indiana has cut its corporate tax rate by nearly 25%, established one of the highest R&D tax credits in the country and started work on a $10 billion infrastructure-improvement plan.
和许多中西部制造业州一样,印第安纳长期的痛处在于,眼睁睁得看着工作流向海外。七年州长,共和党人米奇·丹尼尔斯的回应姿态是大力贯彻对企业有利的立法。该州在过去的岁月里对公司减税接近25%,建立了企业R&D税收抵免站点,这样的站点在美国还有很多;还开启了计划100亿美元的基础实施整修工作。

Until recently, though, Mr Daniels had resisted calls to make Indiana what is known as a right-to-work (RTW) state. RTW legislation allows employees to decide whether to financially support a union. Without such laws unions can insist that all workers pay dues to help fund the cost of negotiating a contract with an employer, whether or not they wish to formally join the union. Now, however, Mr Daniels says he believes the state needs to sign up as well. The new legislation was passed by the state Senate on February 1st and was signed by Mr Daniels that very day, making Indiana the 23rd RTW state in America—and the first such state in the nation’s old manufacturing belt.
然而就是在最近,丹尼尔斯还在拒绝让印州成为RTW州(众所周知的工作权利法案)。RTW立法规定员工有权决定是否出钱支持工会。如果没有RTW这样的法律,工会就可以坚持让所有的员工都应缴纳会费,帮助为和雇主就工作合同谈判所需的费用筹钱,不管这些员工是否愿意正式加入工会。但现在,丹尼尔斯说,他认为印州也需要签署RTW法案。新法2月1号在州参议院获得通过,当天有丹尼尔斯签署,这样一来,印州,成为了美国通过RTW法案的第23个州。这也是美国传统工业带第一个通过此法的州。

Proponents argue that it is wrong to force anyone to contribute money to a union. Unions counter they face a free rider problem whereby non-affiliated workers receive the benefits of union negotiations without contributing financially. The governor, meanwhile, says the new laws will simply make the state more attractive to business.
保障工作权利的倡导者认为强制他人给工会捐钱的做法是不可取的。工会反驳道,他们面临着无本获利的难题,在这样的背景下,非直属工会的员工,就可以从工会谈判获取利益,而不掏一分钱。同时州长丹尼尔斯说新法只会让印州吸引更多的企业。

Evidence from the Indiana Economic Development Corporation suggests that many employers do indeed want these laws. This group says that somewhere between a quarter to a half of companies in the state planning to relocate insist upon going to RTW states.
来自印第安纳经济发展公司的证据表明很多雇主确实需要这样的法律。该公司说,在印州1/4到1/2计划搬迁的公司中,某公司坚持要将其公司所在地搬到通过了RTW的州中。

Few companies, though, are willing to go on the record to say exactly why they prefer to locate in RTW states though the reason is pretty obvious—in a nutshell, they make for weaker unions. It is a sensitive subject and companies fear picketing and other similar reprisals. However, Remy International, an electrical-engineering company based in Pendleton, Indiana, has stated that it plans to build another factory in America some time next year: but that in the absence of RTW legislation it will not build it in Indiana.
然而至于准确说出为什么他们更愿意搬迁到通过了RTW的州,虽然理由显而易见---简言之,他们这样做,是为了弱化工会---没有公司愿意始作俑者。这是一个敏感话题,公司也不敢越雷池,害怕遭到类似的报复。然而,位于该州彭德尔顿的电工程公司雷米国际(Remy International)已经声明,该公司计划在明年某个时间国内在建一座工厂:但为了逃避RTW法案,该公司不会将新厂建在印州。

In an interview with Stateline, a news service that looks at trends in state policy, a vice-president of Remy, Jay Pittas, argued that RTW legislation makes it easier to negotiate flexible work rules, and means that unions are more likely to agree to a merit-based system of employment rather than a one based on seniority. The company, however, now declines to comment further on the subject.
在一次由观察州政策动态的新闻服务机构Stateline进行的采访中,雷米副总裁jay Pittas说,RTW法案让员工更加容易的把灵活的工作制度 摆到谈判桌上来,RTW立法的存在就意味着工会更有可能会认同以绩效工资为基准的体系,而不会去认同员工资历体系。公司现在并不愿意对这个话题多说上些什么。

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