《经济学人》:向道路杀手宣战
日期:2011-05-23 10:57

(单词翻译:单击)

Global road safety全球道路安全

Fighting road kill 向道路杀手宣战

The WHO has a plan to make the world’s roads less lethal
世界卫生组织已经制订了一个计划,旨在减少道路死亡

May 12th 2011 | NEW YORK | from the print edition | International

SOME mortal threats grab all the attention. Malnutrition, HIV/AIDS and cancer win over rock stars to the cause and provoke grown-ups to wear plastic bracelets. At the other end of the spectrum, past meningitis and diarrheal disease, lies road safety—which has been largely neglected on the global stage. But not for a lack of urgency. Globally, road accidents were the ninth leading cause of death in 2004. By 2030 they could be the fifth, above HIV/AIDS and lung cancer.

一些致命的威胁引起了所有的关注。营养不良,艾滋病和癌症这些比摇滚歌星能引起青少年的关注。另一极端的说法就是,道路安全与脑膜炎和腹泻(造成的伤害)相当——这在世界范围内很大程度上被忽略了。这并不是说这不紧急。就全球来看,道路交通事故在2004年是死亡原因中位列第九。到2020年这可能会位列第五,排列艾滋病和肺癌之前。

The World Health Organisation (WHO) is now trying to make roads less deadly. On May 11th it launched a “decade of road safety”, with a plan to save 5m lives and prevent 50m serious injuries by 2020. Officials from Vietnam to Mexico declared themselves determined to prevent traffic deaths. A new road-safety “tag” even graced landmarks in New York, London and Rio de Janeiro.

世界卫生组织现在正在试图减少交通事故的死亡。5月11日,世卫组织发起了“道路安全十年”行动”,并且计划到2020年,挽救500万生命,避免5000万人受重伤。来自越南以及墨西哥的官员表示,他们会全力防止交通死亡。甚至在纽约,伦敦,里约热内卢就有一个新的道路安全“标签”地标。

Yet changing habits on the road will not be easy. Many Europeans like driving fast. In India lanes exist in theory only; motorists make suicidal attempts to overtake and appear to believe their horns confer protection. A survey of 178 countries by the WHO, published in 2009, provides a glimpse of the problem—particularly in the developing world. Poor and middle-income countries account for more than 90% of road deaths, but just 48% of the world’s registered vehicles. As economies have surged, so has car use. Road rules and other safety measures have yet to catch up.

不过,要想改变在道路上的习惯并不容易。许多欧洲喜欢开快车。在印度,就没有“道路”的概念;驾车的人都是自杀式地超车,并且认为鸣笛能够确保他们的安全。世卫组织在2009年发布的关于178个国家的报告为这个问题提供了参考——尤其是对于发展中国家。贫穷和中等收入国家的死亡人数占到了总交通事故死亡人数的90%,而这其中仅仅的注册交通工具数量仅占世界的48%。随着经济的快速增长,汽车也将普及。道路交通规则和其他的安全措施却没有跟上。

Many countries lack basic safety rules that could, the WHO argues, reduce the number of accidents. Easy steps, such as requiring the use of seat belts and setting sensible speed limits, can dramatically reduce the risk of traffic-death. Yet only 38% of poor countries ask both front- and back-seat passengers to wear seat belts. Less than one-third of countries meet simple criteria for reducing speed on city roads.

世卫组织认为,许多国家都缺乏基本的安全规则,而这些规则能减少事故的发生。像一些要求使用安全带和合理限制车速等简单措施都能够大大减少交通死亡。不过仅38%的贫穷国家要求全体乘客佩带安全带。不到三分之一的国家满足简单的城市道路减速标准。

Even when rules do exist, they are seldom enforced. A country may ban drink-driving, for example, but have no breathalysers. Safety features common in the rich world, such as car seats for infants, are rarities elsewhere. And roads in poor countries are often a danger to pedestrians and cyclists: they account for fewer than 25% of road-deaths in America, but the figure in Thailand is over 80%.

另外就是,即使这些规则存在,这些国家也很少云执行。例如,某些国家可能会禁止酒后驾车,但它并没有呼气酒精测试器。在富裕的国家,安全措施非常普遍,例如这里有婴儿汽车座椅,而在其他地方则很少见。另外,穷国的道路对于那些步行者和骑自行车的人来说,通常是比较危险的:在美国这些人的死亡不到道路死亡人数的25%,而在泰国,则占到80%以上。

The WHO’s plan includes guidelines for improving emergency services, designing roads and enforcing safety rules. These changes could cost $200m each year for the next decade. A $125m gift in 2009 from Michael Bloomberg, New York’s billionaire mayor, will help. But more is needed. The WHO thinks road crashes cost most countries between 1% and 3% of GNP. Traffic safety might not be the most thrilling investment. But it is a sound one.

世卫组织的计划包括了提高紧急服务,道路设计和执行道路规则的指导纲要。实现这些改变要在未来的十年里每年耗费2亿美元。2009年,来自纽约亿万富翁的市长迈克尔??彭博(Michael Bloomberg)先生为此提供了1.25美元的帮助。不过这还不够。世卫组织认为,在大多数国家,道路交通事故的造成的损失占到国民生产总值的1% 到 3%。交通安全或许并不是最让人兴奋的投资。不过它却是一个合理的投资。

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重点单词
  • sensibleadj. 可察觉的,意识到的,实用的 n. 可感知物
  • malnutritionn. 营养不良
  • plasticadj. 塑料的,可塑的,造型的,整形的,易受影响的 n
  • determinedadj. 坚毅的,下定决心的
  • confervi. 商讨 vt. 赠予,授予
  • globaladj. 全球性的,全世界的,球状的,全局的
  • overtakev. 赶上,突然来袭,压倒
  • preventv. 预防,防止
  • lethaladj. 致命的,毁灭性的,有效的 n. 基因异常,致死
  • protectionn. 保护,防卫