《经济学人》:中国经济,正分裂
日期:2011-07-19 10:43

(单词翻译:单击)

China's economy
中国经济

Even splits
正分裂

China does its bit to calm worries about the world economy
中国尽能及之力,平抑对世界经济的担忧

Jul 14th 2011 | HONG KONG | from the print edition

A RUNNER cannot sprint all the time, noted Sheng Laiyun of China’s National Bureau of Statistics, after the release of China’s new growth figures on July 13th; he must pace himself so that he can run better later. Over the past four quarters China’s economy has recorded what runners call “even splits”, keeping a steady pace, lap after lap. It grew by 9.5% in the second quarter (year on year), having grown at a similar rate in the previous three.

中国新的经济增长数值公布之后,国家统计局新闻发言人盛来运表示,赛跑者不能永远在保持冲刺状态,他必须调整自己的步伐以便今后跑得更好。过去的四个季度中国经济经历了被跑步者称为“正分裂”的情形,保持稳定的速率,一圈又一圈的跑下去。(与去年同期相比)中国经济在第二季度以9.5%的速率保持增长,这一增长速度与其前三年的速度相近。

The figures helped allay fears of a hard landing for China’s economy. But they raised some doubts about whether the economy is landing at all. Consumer prices rose by 6.4%. in the year to June. The economy’s pace may be steady. But is it too fast to sustain?

这一增长速度缓解了中国经济硬着落的担忧。但是怀疑论者担忧中国经济是否是正真的良好发展。今年6月份居民消费价格与上月相比上升了6.4%。中国的经济增长速度也许是平稳的,但太快了反而难以为继。

China’s macroeconomists, if not its consumers, can take some comfort from the nature of the inflation. Two-thirds of it was due to food prices, and much of that was due to pork. Farmers responded to low pork prices last year by breeding fewer pigs, some of which have since fallen victim to porcine diarrhoea. That pushed up prices by 11.4% in June alone, an annualised rate of 265%. This has played havoc with many economists’ inflation forecasts. “Perhaps I should have become a veterinarian,” says Andy Rothman of CLSA.

中国的宏观经济学家,如果不是消费者的话,可以从通货膨胀中得到些许安慰。2/3的通货膨胀是由食物价上涨引起的,而期中最大的原因在于猪肉价格的上涨。养猪户以减少饲养数量的方式来应对去年的猪肉价格低迷状况。这致使仅仅今年七月份猪肉价格以265%的年率上升了11.4%。这打乱了许多经济学家对通货膨胀的预期。里昂证券的经济学家安迪•罗斯曼笑称“要是我是一名兽医就好了”

The source of China’s growth is more worrying than its speed. According to Mark Williams of Capital Economics, investment comprised 62% of the economy’s expansion in the second quarter, its biggest contribution for 18 months. Investment in fixed assets, such as buildings, factories and equipment, has grown by between 21% and 26%, year on year, for the past four quarters, despite the government’s efforts to tighten credit. This resilience may be because so much investment is carried out by state-owned firms, which are at the top of the pecking order when banks make loans. It may also be a sign that financing is not as tight as the hawks would like.

与经济增长速度相比更令人担忧的是中国经济增长的根源问题。Capital Economics的经济学家Mark Williams称,投资在第二季度的经济增长中占据62%的份额,这是它在过去的18个月的最大贡献。尽管政府做出了紧缩信贷的努力,固定资产的投入,如建筑物、厂房和设备, 与去年同期相比,在过去的四个季度已增长到21%—26%。这种回弹可能是由于国有企业大量投资的缘故,而国有公司是银行发放贷款的首要对象。这可能表明融资并不像鹰派所期望的那样稳固。

On the face of it, banks are feeling the pinch, charging each other high rates in the interbank lending market. They made new loans worth 634 billion yuan ($98 billion) in June, typically a strong month for lending. This puts them on course to add less than 7.5 trillion yuan to their loan books this year, according to Peng Wensheng of China International Capital Corporation.

表面上看,银行之间在同业拆借市场上的相互控制让它们感到压力。在六月份它们共发放了6340亿元人民币(合980亿美元)的贷款,一个典型而强大的月贷出。中国国际金融有限公司经济学家彭文生指出,这使得他们在账面上增加将近7.5万亿元的贷款。

But other analysts think financial conditions are looser than they appear. The central bank publishes a broader measure of “social financing”, which includes corporate bonds and some loans repackaged by “trust” companies. By this measure, financing could reach 14.5 trillion yuan this year, according to Fitch, a ratings agency. Even that total may be too low. Fitch believes a better measure of financing—which includes letters of credit loans from Hong Kong and more of the credit from trust companies and similar firms —could exceed 18 trillion yuan this year. That would take China’s stock of financing to 185% of GDP, up from 124% in 2007.

但其他经济分析家认为金融条件比它们所呈现的更加宽松。中央银行颁布了一个范围更广的“社会融资”方案,其中包括公司债券和一些重组的 “信托”投资公司贷款。评级机构惠誉指出,通过这一措施,融资可达到14.5万亿元人民币。然而总数可能太少了。惠誉认为更好的融资方案应该包括来自香港的信贷投资以及来自信托投资公司和类似公司——今年的总数将超过18万亿元人民币。这需要中国的股票融资占国内生产总值的比重由2007年的124%上升至185%。

Yet China seems to be getting less bang for its financial buck. In 2007, Fitch reckons, it took 1.28 yuan of extra financing to produce an additional yuan of GDP. Now it takes 2.38. China’s growth may be remarkably even. But its financial system is having to pump harder to maintain the pace.

但是,中国可能面临较小的金融压力。2007年惠誉推断,只需花费1.28元人民币的额外金融支出就能实现GDP的增长。而现在则需2.38元。中国的经济增长将是显著的,但是金融系统需要再接再厉才能实现。

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重点单词
  • previousadj. 在 ... 之前,先,前,以前的
  • creditn. 信用,荣誉,贷款,学分,赞扬,赊欠,贷方 (复)c
  • additionaladj. 附加的,另外的
  • havocn. 大破坏,混乱 vt. 破坏
  • exceedvt. 超过,胜过,超出界限 vi. 领先
  • pumpn. 泵,抽水机,打气筒,抽水,打气 v. 打气,抽水,
  • releasen. 释放,让渡,发行 vt. 释放,让与,准予发表,发
  • resiliencen. 适应力,弹性,收缩性
  • victimn. 受害者,牺牲
  • measuren. 措施,办法,量度,尺寸 v. 测量,量