This is Scientific American's 60-second Science, I'm Steve Mirsky.
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"There are sort of three main ways that our species has developed to break down foods, or process foods, in a primordial way. And that is by cooking, by fermenting foods and by drying them or desiccating them."
Paul Breslin, professor of nutritional sciences at Rutgers University in New Jersey. He's also a member of the Monell Chemical Sciences Center in Philadelphia.
"And the first two, cooking and fermenting, are older than our species is. Homo sapiens sapiens came about in the presence of fire. And probably eating some fermented foods, since that happens spontaneously."
Breslin spoke February 20th at a press briefing at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston.
"So I think that we may be unique among the apes in that we can detect when a food has been cooked or fermented. And that this allows us to identify the benefits of those, which is that they're detoxified, they have greater available nutrients, and they are, in the case of fermented foods, going to have probiotics—or good microbes that we want and need in our intestines in order to survive in the world."
"The second leading cause of death of children on Earth today is diarrhea, following pneumonia, which is number one. And that diarrheal disease is in fact the most common disease on Earth in humans. And that eating fermented foods, properly fermented foods of any kind, can in fact deliver probiotics, which help prevent these diseases. And I believe could in fact save lives if they were more commonly adopted in society."
Thanks for the minute for Scientific American — 60-Second Science Science. I'm Steve Mirsky.
“我们人类以原始方式分解或加工食物的方法主要有三种 。分别是烹饪食物、发酵食物还有将食物进行干燥或者脱水处理 。”
保罗·布雷斯林是美国新泽西州罗格斯大学的营养科学教授 。他同时也是费城莫奈尔化学科学中心的工作人员 。
“前两种方式，烹饪和发酵的历史比人类还要悠久 。晚期智人产生于火出现后 。他们可能也吃一些发酵的食物，这是自然发生的 。”
“我认为人类在类人猿当中是独特的，因为我们可以识别食物何时煮熟或发酵 。这使我们能确定烹饪和发酵食物的好处，因为烹饪和发酵可以去毒，并产生更多可用的营养，发酵食物会产生益生菌或有益的微细菌，这正是我们的肠道所需要的，因为这可以帮助我们在地球上生存下去 。”
“目前，腹泻是导致全世界儿童死亡的第二大原因，而肺炎是首要原因 。实际上，腹泻是地球上人类最常见的疾病 。事实上，食用发酵食品，恰当发酵的任何食品，都可以产生预防这些疾病的益生菌 。我认为，如果社会更广泛地接受发酵食品，那就可以拯救生命 。”
谢谢大家收听科学美国人——60秒科学 。我是史蒂夫·米尔斯基 。
1. break down （使）（物质）分解；
例句：Sugar and starch are broken down in the stomach.
2. come about 产生；发生；
例句：He could hardly realise how it had all come about.
3. in order to 为了；以便；目的在于；
例句：Plants must have oxygen in order to live.
4. in fact (用于修正、引出相反意见或对比等)事实上，其实；
例句：At first blush the matter seems easy, in fact it is not easy.