The teenage brain is special. Less plastic than a child's developing brain, but not yet with all of the executive functions of an adult noggin. And that makes them more vulnerable to long-term effects of head injury, according to new research. Especially when it comes to sports-related concussions.
青少年的大脑很特殊，它既没有儿童的大脑可塑性强，也不完全具备成人大脑的执行功能 。最新调查表明，青少年的脑部受伤后更易受到长期影响，特别是在涉及体育相关的脑震荡时 。
In football, soccer, hockey or rugby, the top-front of the head usually receives the brunt of the blow. And that region is where the all-important executive function areas are forming for teenagers: the frontal cortex.
在足球，曲棍球或橄榄球运动中，头部的最前端常常会受到冲击力的打击 。而这一区域正是青少年所有重要执行功能正在形成的地方——前额叶 。
To learn more, researchers recruited 96 male sports participants ages nine through 26--half of whom had had a diagnosed concussion in the past year. Using a battery of memory, attention, motor tests and EEG monitors, the researchers found that all of the concussed athletes showed reduced working memory.
为了了解更多，研究人员招募了96名年龄在9至26岁之间的男性运动参与者，他们中几乎有一半曾被诊断出脑震荡 。经过一系列对记忆力、注意力、运动能力的测试以及脑电图监测，研究人员发现所有患有脑震荡的运动员记忆力减退了 。
But the adolescents had the most cognitive impairment, even if months had passed since their injury, and they reported feeling just fine. The findings are in the journal Brain Injury.
即使在受伤几个月后，伤者均感觉良好的时候，青少年表现出来的认知障碍仍然最为严重 。这项研究发表在《脑损伤》期刊上 。
So for high school athletes, a rough hit could lead to problems lasting longer than a bad headache.