科学美国人60秒:最新的埃博拉疫情更具传染性
日期:2017-01-16 11:58

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This is Scientific American — 60-Second Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.
Ebola outbreaks before the most recent one have been fairly contained: geographically limited, and just a couple hundred cases. The latest outbreak, though, which started in late 2013 and lasted more than two years, was entirely different. "There were almost 30,000 cases." Jeremy Luban, a virologist at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. "You could argue this was the first actual epidemic."
Luban and his colleagues studied publicly available data on the evolutionary "family tree" of the Ebola virus during the latest outbreak—how the strains mutated and changed over time. "And one in particular caught our attention. It arose early in the epidemic, and it's the only form of the virus that persisted beyond that point."

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This mutant strain was armed with an alteration in the protein it uses to enter cells. What Luban's team found was that the modified protein actually made the strain more infectious to the cells of humans and other primates—but not to other mammals. The study is in the journal Cell.
Luban says it's unclear whether this increased infectivity helped drive the outbreak to epidemic proportions. Or whether the length and size of the epidemic simply allowed for more virulent strains like this one to appear. Still, he says, studying these strains helps us understand how the virus infects—and replicates. "That may help us treat infections in the future, to develop therapies, or to develop vaccines to block an infection." In other words: know thy enemy.
Thanks for listening for Scientific American — 60-Second Science Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.

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参考译文

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这里是科学美国人——60秒科学E.RknINOw[VU4。我是克里斯托弗·因塔利亚塔ndv@]Z]2uxMZ[2x
此前爆发的埃博拉疫情控制得相当不错:从地域上说得到了控制,而且只有几百个病例CgRuu6_hW*u。但是,自2013年开始爆发并持续了两年多的最新疫情则完全不同R(3r*=y8f(PrETiHCVR。“约有3万例感染病例”w]|~&Fge-UO[H*UXVRp。 杰里米·鲁邦是马萨诸塞大学医学院的病毒学家)lfeg!MDyF@cS;|XGqg。“可以说这是第一次真正的流行病40zaU+AY4-uBq2MR。”
鲁邦和他的同事们对最新埃博拉病毒家谱图进化的可行性数据进行了研究,他们研究的重点是菌株是如何随着时间的推移突变和改变的llaDHXIa9YlX],。“其中一个菌株特别引起了我们的注意5mTsg3ZmsMCEY(-!。这个菌株在疫情早期出现,而且是唯一一个持续存在的菌株*sv0Jyv_h+~G。”
这个突变的菌株配有变异的蛋白质,这是其进入细胞的方式N3pzVR;~4ewL;。鲁邦的研究团队发现,变异后的蛋白质使人类和灵长类动物的细胞更易感染菌株,但是不会影响其他哺乳动物5epDkwEKO,]。该研究结果发表在《细胞》杂志上yoR3Yhh[x6AMRt)ei2#!
鲁邦表示,尚不清楚这种增加的传染性是否会导致传染比例暴增,)P9-)y4_b