记忆机制 (一) — 瞬时记忆、短时记忆、长时记忆
Memory Mechanism 1---Instant Memory, Short-term Memory and Long-term Memory
短时记忆阶段贮存瞬时记忆输入的信息。虽然信息保持的时间短，但对口译人员来说，该时段 的记忆却相当重要，它是译者进行高强度脑力活动的关键时刻。此时，译者对源语的记忆还十分清楚，可以利 用这一时段将收到的信息迅速进行各种关联并进一步完成由源语到目的语的转化。短时记忆除了可以获取谈话 者正在谈论的信息，还可以激活长时记忆中的相关信息。但短时记忆的特点是容量小和持续时间短。因此，该时段记忆的信息应马上使用，否则，随即便会遗忘。鉴于短时记忆的这一特点，译者在做交传时应借用笔记这 种辅助手段帮助大脑储存信息。
最后，经过加工的语言信息进入长时记忆阶段。长时记忆的信息容量要大得多，信息的保持可 以从短时直至终身，是大脑长期保持信息的主要手段。在口译的记忆过程中它配合短时记忆共同完成大脑的记忆工作。长时记忆对我们口译的影响很大。长时记忆的信息都是经验性的，人们听过、看过、经历过的事情都可以留在长时记忆中，随时可提取出来与正在听到的信息相结合，从而帮助人们更透彻地理解信息。对口译员 来讲，大脑储存的知识越多，经验知识越丰富，就越能在口译时发挥出最佳的水平。
概括来讲，三种记忆机制在口译过程中各司其职。瞬时记忆有瞬间感知信息、接收外界信号的作用，所以通常与源语听辨有关；短时记忆与长时记忆都有一定的持续时间，所以与译员对源语信息的储存有 关；而长时记忆的持续时间最长，有积累和相互重叠的特点，所以与译员长期以来的语言学习和知识积累有 关。就记忆而言，“瞬时记忆”是口译的前提，“短时记忆”是口译的关键，“长时记忆”是口译的基础。
The poverty line is the minimum income that people need for an acceptable standard of living. People with incomes below the poverty line are considered poor. Economists study the causes of poverty in order to find solutions to the problem.
As the general standard of living in the country rises, the poverty line does, too. therefore, even with today’s relatively high standard of living, about 10 percent of the people in the United States are below the poverty line. However, if these people had stable jobs, they could have an acceptable standard of living. Economists suggest several reasons why poor people do not have jobs.
For one thing, more than half of the poor people in the United States are not qualified to work. Over 40 percent of the poor people are children. By law, children less than 16 years old cannot work in many industries. A large number of poor people are old. Many companies do not hire people over 65 years old, the normal retirement age.
Some poor adults do not look for jobs for a variety of personal reasons: they are sick, they do not have any motivation(动力). they have family problems, or they do not believe that they can find a job.
Other poor people look for a job but cannot find one. Many poor adults never went to high school. Therefore, when they look for jobs, they have few skills that they can offer.
At the present time, the government thinks it can reduce poverty in the country in the following ways.
First, if the national economy grows. businesses and industries hire more workers. Some of the poor who are qualified to look for jobs may find employment. Then they will no longer be below the poverty line.
Second, if society invests in the poor, the poor will become more productive. if the government spends money on social programs, education, and training for poor people, the poor will have the skills to offer, Then it is more likely that they can find jobs.
Finally, if the government distributes society’s income differently, it raises some poor people above the poverty line. The government collects taxes from the non-poor and gives money to the poor. These payments to the poor are called welfare. in 1975 over 18million people in the United States received welfare.
Some economists are looking for better solutions to the poverty problem. However, at the present time, many people depend on welfare for a minimally acceptable standard of living.
我是本着坦诚负责、信任、合作的精神，前来参加这个会议的1。我将向东盟领导人通报中国 的疫情和防治工作中的主要经验教训，介绍中国政府采取的措施2。我期待着通过这次会议，促进中国与东盟 的相互了解和信任，增进我们之间的合作。//
I came to attend this conference in the spirit of candid responsibility, trust and cooperation. I will brief ASEAN leaders on the SARS situation in China, major experience and lessons in the prevention and treatment of SARS, and the measures taken by the Chinese government. I hope that mutual understanding and trust between China and ASEAN countries will be promoted and cooperation between us will be enhanced through this conference. //