VOA慢速英语(翻译+字幕+讲解):抗生素耐药性已从动物传播至人类
日期:2018-05-11 17:37

(单词翻译:单击)

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听力文本

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Antibiotic Resistance Spreads Quickly from Animals to People

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Scientists are shocked at the speed at which resistance to powerful antibiotics spreads from animals to people.

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New research has shown that genetic changes in pathogens affect people and animals around the world in just a few years. The research suggests these genetic changes probably spread from a pig farm in China.

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Professor Francois Balloux is the lead researcher for the study and director of the Genetics Institute at University College London.

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He says the powerful antibiotic Colistin has become an important last line of defense. It is used to save people's lives when all other drugs have failed.

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"And it was mostly used in agriculture then, in pigs and a bit in chickens. But recently, as we are running out of drugs, people actually have become a bit more interested in using it, and it has been used quite extensively recently over the last five to 10 years in the clinic."

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Now, even Colistin is losing its power against highly resistant bacteria called "superbugs."

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Fast mutation

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Deadly pathogens like E. Coli or salmonella can change and develop resistance to antibiotics. Balloux's research identifies the speed at which the gene that gives resistance to Colistin began in the mid-2000s.

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"It happened once. And it jumped very, very likely from pigs, probably in China, and it spread extremely rapidly throughout the world. And it also spread in all sorts of different species and affects humans."

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The resistance has even been found in pathogens in seawater on Brazilian beaches. Balloux notes his study centered on just one resistant gene, but many pathogens are developing other forms of resistance.

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Sally Davies is Britain's chief medical officer. She warned recently that anti-microbial resistance could lead to the "end of modern medicine."

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Last October, she spoke to delegates at a conference on anti-microbial resistance in Germany. She told them that common operations, such as cesarean sections, would become dangerous without working antibiotics.

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"Those would become much more risky if we did not have effective antibiotics. Superbugs kill and they're on the rise."

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Scientists are working on improving existing drugs like Colistin to give them added power against resistant pathogens.

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In the longer term, researchers say more investment is needed in developing new drugs. They also say there is a need to rethink how antibiotics are used in agriculture and at clinics.

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I'm Alice Bryant.

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重点解析

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1.the lead researcher 首席研究员

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The lead researcher in the study said the results were beyond anything he expected.

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这一研究的首席研究研究说,这个结果完全超出了他的预期=,0(d53tJjGR.

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2.lead to 导致

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A lack of prudence may lead to financial problems.

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不够谨慎可能会导致财政上出现问题zEZgd)#%9T%

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3.all sorts of 各种各样的

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There are all sorts of animals, including bears, pigs, kangaroos, and penguins

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有各种各样的动物,包括熊、猪、袋鼠和企鹅q!ywBJanjvT,##6

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4.such as 例如

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She was involved in many New Age activities such as yoga and healing.

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她参加了很多“新时代”活动,如瑜伽和康复法o*6g!NF4[39l

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5.In the longer term, researchers say more investment is needed in developing new drugs.

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In the longer term 从长远来看

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In the longer term, closer integration with China is likely to benefit Taiwan economically.

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从长远来看,与中国更为紧密的融合,很可能会令台湾经济从中获益s4a@co.zkV3lO!3

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In the longer term, investment has also been damaged by uncertainty surrounding prices.

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较长期而言,围绕油价的不确定性,也损害了投资活动pzm@-CiAl5ll!,.

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6.But recently, as we are running out of drugs, people actually have become a bit more interested in using it.

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running out of 用完;耗尽

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We're running out of time.

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我们快没有时间了T1q8952)gJ

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The copy machine is running out of paper.

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参考译文

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抗生素耐药性已从动物传播至人类

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抗生素耐药性从动物传播至人类的速度之快,让科学家感到震惊!~.1AG6VUxY|2tmC

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新的研究表明,在短短几年内,病原体的基因变化会影响全球的人类和动物NsIhpxzOd.hT。该研究表明,这些基因变化可能是从中国一座养猪场传播开来的c3OVa~L1CdD(WN*h

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该研究的首席研究员弗朗索瓦·巴卢(Francois Balloux)教授是伦敦大学学院遗传学研究所的主任hHjIYpiT&;^Zig4=k*e

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他说,强大的抗生素粘菌素已成为最后一道重要防线wPb@ldeENiKr^7t。当所有其他的药物都失效时,它可以用来拯救人们的生命Q+LNlf1D!^2P

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“粘菌素主要用于农业,用在猪和鸡身上6R-zleHZ@B2。但是最近,我们的药物越来越少,人类开始对它的效用产生了兴趣,最近的5到10年里,它被诊所广泛使用+A+bQ2E,9Ci_,]。”

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抗生素耐药性已从动物传播至人类.jpg

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现在,即使是粘菌素也无力对抗被称为“超级细菌”的高耐药性细菌7b+sFeW-%_2jlT,W5yJ

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像大肠杆菌或沙门氏菌等致命病原体可以改变并对抗生素产生耐药性]lva+WMM*p*5~N~n2p。巴卢的研究确定了基因传播的速度,对粘菌素产生耐药性的基因在21世纪中期就开始传播B)%iBqzdLY5

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“这种情况发生过4~i@s;su~8xs。最初,人们从猪的身上发现了这种基因,可能在中国开始,随后在世界各地迅速传播^tiSo-&.t;2#y|N8i[G。耐药基因也在不同物种中传播并影响着人类l0X_9z^)J&。”

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研究人员甚至在巴西海滩的海水中发现了耐药病原体JVyRY&~[My。巴卢指出,他的研究只集中在一种耐药基因上,但许多病原体正发展成其他形式的耐药性k_[y2qQ@3-)^

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萨利·戴维斯(Sally Davies)是英国的首席医疗官0TaT64v&_iF2!5%E%O5。最近,她警告称,抗菌素耐药性可能导致“现代医学的终结”y1lo&Gw99;C.#zy

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去年10月,在德国一场抗菌素耐药性会议上,她对与会代表发表了讲话HmbNnQe,8mt7。她指出,像剖腹产这类常见的手术如果不使用抗生素会变得很危险_][5-iGX%aW&^F8pJ3

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“如果没有有效的抗生素,我们会面临更多的风险A(EFHLX*2Y.c.U(n。超级细菌会逐渐占据上风~q(P*hEENPlJOFw。”

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科学家正在努力改进现有药物,如粘菌素,来增强对抗耐药性病原体的能力t9%68mJ-II

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研究人员称,从长远来看,研发新药品需要更多的投资ZW(hJD(UVxPYBw。他们还说,有必要重新审视抗生素在农业和诊所中的使用@-Lc-Sf[,%RTZk~bZUd

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译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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重点单词
  • speciesn. (单复同)物种,种类
  • resistantadj. 抵抗的,反抗的 n. 抵抗者
  • healingn. 康复,复原 adj. 有治疗功用的
  • uncertaintyn. 不确定,不可靠,半信半疑 (学术)不可信度; 偏差
  • antibioticadj. 抗菌的 n. 抗生素
  • antibioticsn. 抗生素,抗生学
  • effectiveadj. 有效的,有影响的
  • affectvt. 影响,作用,感动
  • conferencen. 会议,会谈,讨论会,协商会
  • geneticadj. 基因的,遗传的,起源的