From VOA Learning English, this is the Health Report in Special English.
Last week we talked about ways to avoid cold-weather injuries. This week we are going to talk about emergency treatment of hypothermia.
Hypothermia can be mild, moderate or severe. Mild hypothermia is something that most people have experienced if they live in cold climates. You feel so cold that your body starts to shake -- not very much, but uncontrollably.
An Italian climber is saved after suffering hypothermia and other injuries on Argentina’s Mount Aconcagua in January
The treatment for mild hypothermia starts with getting out of the cold and, if necessary, changing into dry clothes. Drinking warm, non-alcoholic liquids and eating something sugary can stop the shivering.
Taking a warm bath or sitting by a fire or doing some exercise can also help the body warm up. These are all common sense treatments.
But treatment needs change when people enter the moderate or severe stages of hypothermia. In that situation, their body temperature drops below thirty-five degrees Celsius. They lose the ability to think clearly. Their muscles become stiff. They might bump into things or fall over objects.
We got advice from a park ranger experienced in search-and-rescue for the National Park Service. She explained that rescuers will first try to prevent additional heat loss. They will place extra covering around the chest, head and neck of hypothermia victims to keep them warm.
It is important to work fast to get people out of the cold. Hypothermia victims need medical help as soon as possible. But it is equally important to move them slowly and gently.
Any rough or sudden movement can force cold blood from the arms, legs and hands deep into the warmer middle of the body. The sudden flow of cold blood can create shock, a serious condition. It can also cause a dangerously abnormal heartbeat.
The process of "rewarming" a person needs to be done slowly, in a hospital setting. Members of search-and-rescue teams have a saying that victims are not dead until they are warm and dead.
An extremely low body temperature can cause the heart to beat so slowly that a pulse may be difficult to find. In other words, a person who is suffering from the effects of severe cold may seem dead, but still be alive.
And that’s the VOA Special English Health Report, written by Caty Weaver. If you missed last week’s advice about how to avoid cold-weather injuries, you can find it at 51voa.com. And you can follow us on Twitter and YouTube at VOA Learning English. I’m Christopher Cruise.
1.hypothermia n. 降低体温；低体温症
Check to see if the victim has blue or pale skin or low body temperature, as these can be signs of hypothermia.
2.shiver v. 颤抖；
They kept shivering beneath the buffalo robes and hugging each other.
低温症分为轻度、中度和重度 。轻度低温症是多数人在寒冷气候里都经历过的，冷的时候身体开始颤抖，虽然不严重，但无法控制 。
轻度低温症的处理从摆脱寒冷开始，如果必要，可换上干燥的衣服 。喝些暖和无酒精的饮料，吃些含糖食物可停止发抖 。
洗个热水澡，坐在火堆旁，或是做运动就可以使身体热起来 。这些都是常识性的治疗 。
但一旦进入中度或重度低温症，就要用别的办法来处理了 。这种情况下，人的体温下降到35度以下，就会失去清醒思维的能力，肌肉开始僵硬，可能会撞到物体上或跌到什么东西上 。
让患者迅速脱离寒冷很重要，低温症患者需要尽快接受医疗救助 。但缓慢轻柔挪动也同样重要 。
任何粗暴或突然的移动都可能使胳膊、腿上和手上的冷血流入体内温暖部位 。冷血的突然流动会导致中风，还会导致危险的心跳异常 。
极度低温会导致心脏跳动过慢，这样就很难找到脉息 。也就是说，严重低温患者可能看上去死了，但其实还活着 。