VOA慢速英语(翻译+字幕+讲解):埃博拉试验疫苗绕过常规监管
日期:2014-10-30 09:00

(单词翻译:单击)

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听力文本

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From VOA Learning English, this is the Health Report.

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Researchers are hurrying to develop effective treatments and vaccines for Ebola. The disease has killed more than 4,500 people. Most of the victims lived in one of three West African countries - Guinea, Liberia or Sierra Leone.

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In the United States, the government's process for approving new drugs can often take years. But treatments for Ebola are moving quickly through the approval process.

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Before US government officials approve a new drug, researchers must perform detailed scientific tests, what are called clinical trials. The tests must be done on humanbeings to show that the experimental treatment is both safe and effective. These drug trials usually involve thousands of people and can take many years to complete.

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But there are exceptions. Thomas Geisbert is a microbiologist at the University of Texas medical branch in Galveston. He says the U.S. Food and Drug Administration can make an exception through what he calls its "animal rule." This enables researchers to get fast approval when faced with a deadly disease like the Ebola virus.

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Mr Geisbert helped develop what is known as the VSV Ebola vaccine, this vaccine recently moved to human clinical trials at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research in Maryland. The tests involve 20 healthy volunteers.

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Mr Geisbert says that the animal rule requires only that scientists demonstrate that a treatment is effective in an animal model of human disease. This time, he says, the human model of disease was monkeys.

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"In conjunction with that, you do a conventional phase one trial. That's just a study where you put a vaccine or treatment into a healthy human volunteer just to make sure that you know in normal, healthy people that your vaccine or drug does not cause any disease or serious adverse event," Geisbert said.

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Another experimental drug called zMapp went straight from the laboratory to Ebola patients. The Food and Drug Administration also bypassed human safety trials to treat a handful of patients in the United States.

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Many researchers are hard at work to develop effective treatments and vaccines for Ebola. Canadian researchers made the VSV vaccine, which is now being tested in Maryland. The British drug company GlaxoSmithKline has made another promising but experimental vaccine.

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The safety of that vaccine is currently being tested in Mali. The West African nation shares a border with Guinea, where the virus has infected many people. As of now, no Ebola cases have been reported in Mali.

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Researchers say, the promising vaccine will move into a more advanced human testing early next year. They will use these tests to show if the vaccine is safe for human use.

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文本来自51voa,译文属可可原创,仅供学习交流使用,未经许可请勿转载-|albsS8Pm8

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词汇解释

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1.microbiologist n. 微生物学家

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Microbiologist Hugh Pennington says learning that quickly absolutely crucial.
微生物学家休·潘尼顿表示尽快了解口蹄疫势在必行rb*ZwMI#.qW

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2.conjunction n. 结合;[语] 连接词;同时发生

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Textbooks are designed to be used in conjunction with classroom teaching.
教科书被设计成与课堂教学配合使用p33YEbm#sgmi2O

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3.adverse adj. 不利的;相反的;敌对的(名词adverseness,副词adversely)

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The police said Mr. Hadfield's decision would have no adverse effect on the progress of the investigation.
警方说哈德菲尔德先生的决定对于调查进展不会有任何不利的影响edTTN_uto0d[Ki8LPo

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内容解析

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1.He says the U.S. Food and Drug Administration can make an exception through what he calls its "animal rule."

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make an exception 例外,破例

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We shall make an exception of your case.
我们将你的情况作为例外处理K)sHq!Z%l@ZmX

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We can make an exception in this case.
此事可以通融^)ub=2fmNzm=BGJcGLJ

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参考译文

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这里是美国之音慢速英语健康报道=azG1BvoI4N,xV,Mh

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研究者正赶时间研制对付埃博拉的有效疗法和疫苗,这场疫情已经夺走了4500多人的生命,大多数受害者居住在三个西非国家:几内亚、利比里亚和塞拉利昂M6(MlCjbqi

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在美国,政府批准新药物的程序通常需要花费数年时间,但埃博拉疗法的批准程序进行得很快*J~-k_vm-CHslO

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在美国政府官员批准一项新药物之前,研究者必须进行详细的科学测试,也就是临床试验29*fig]2e5;a。这种试验必须在人类身上做,以表明实验药物是安全且有效的bJ1~aU1Y(5R;g)R+=|l3。这种药物试验通常需要数千人参与,需要几年才能完成&NoSzrat.nUu

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但是也有例外,托马斯·盖斯伯特是得克萨斯大学加尔维斯顿医学分部的微生物学家,他说美国食品与药物管理局可以通过所谓的“动物规则”来破例,这样在遇到像埃博拉病毒这样的致命疫情时研究者就能快速得到批准MIOL@JOkF^vFi!@(M8us

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盖斯伯特帮助研制了所谓的VSV埃博拉疫苗,这种疫苗最近在马里兰州的沃尔特·里德陆军研究所转入了人体临床试验,试验需要20名健康的志愿者IBKeJfGWxqv|5Tv&v@)

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盖斯伯特说动物规则只需要科学家证明一种疗法对人类疾病的动物模板有效即可,他说这次疾病的人类模板是猴子#~~ji7OQb-

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“与此对应我们进行第一阶段的传统试验,只是把疫苗或疗法运用到健康的人类志愿者身上,只是为了确认这种疫苗或药物在正常健康者身上不会导致疾病或严重的不良反应A&eXJMxhN#cG,。”

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另一种名为zMapp的试验药物直接从实验室到达埃博拉患者那里,食物与药品管理局也绕过了人体安全试验用于治疗美国的少数患者*%r,psge~P7t^G@wIgf

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很多研究者在努力研制对付埃博拉的有效疗法和疫苗,加拿大研究者研制了VSV疫苗,目前这种疫苗在马里兰州进行试验8qzR2oIrShD[!8*+#a-。英国葛兰素史克制药公司研制出另一种很有希望的试验药物,KJ4S_ks=.v;c^S

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马里目前在对该疫苗的安全性进行测试,这个西非国家与几内亚接壤,几内亚的感染者更多gHGmrpcfo;rFFT。到目前为止马里还没有报道有埃博拉病例SbO&-)ah#3

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研究者称这种有希望的疫苗将于明年早些时候进入更高级的人体试验阶段,他们将使用这些试验来证明疫苗对人类是否安全VC+Y.]lg=SmU

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重点单词
  • conjunctionn. 连词,结合,关联,(事件等的)同时发生
  • decisionn. 决定,决策
  • instituten. 学会,学院,协会 vt. 创立,开始,制定
  • effectiveadj. 有效的,有影响的
  • involvevt. 包含,使陷入,使忙于,使卷入,牵涉
  • detailedadj. 详细的
  • performv. 执行,运转,举行,表演
  • approvaln. 批准,认可,同意,赞同
  • absolutelyadv. 绝对地,完全地;独立地
  • promisingadj. 有希望的,有前途的