Spanking Children Causes Long-term Harm
From VOA Learning English, this is the Health & Lifestyle report.
For some parents, spanking a child who misbehaves is a common punishment. In fact, they may think that a physical type of punishment is good for children and will teach them to behave in the future.
However, a leading group of child health specialists suggests that the opposite is true. These experts say that spanking is not only ineffective, it may even cause long-term harm to the child.
The American Academy of Pediatrics recently amended its policy on physical punishment for a child.
Released in October, the academy warns that spanking a child can long-term effects. These effects include "aggression, brain changes, substance abuse and suicidal behavior in adulthood."
The report admits that not every child who is spanked will have these problems later in life. It makes this observation: "Although many children who were spanked become happy, healthy adults, current evidence suggests that spanking is not necessary and may result in long-term harm."
In recent years, many American experts have been advising parents against the use of physical punishment. Many other countries have already banned corporeal punishment. Sweden was the first nation to do so in 1966.
2012 Canadian study
Earlier studies have shown that corporeal punishment can also affect a child's ability to think and learn.
In 2012, a Canadian study found that spanking children can cause long-term developmental damage and may even lower a child's intelligence test scores.
Joan Durrant of the University of Manitoba is an expert in child development and how violence affects children. She was one of the authors of this report. Her co-author was Ron Ensom, with the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario in Ottawa.
Durrant and Ensom studied 20 years of published research on the long-term effects of physical punishment. They found that such punishment makes children more aggressive and antisocial. They wrote that violence affects development in the brain and its ability to work properly. They also found that it can lead to depression and drug abuse.
A report on this study and its findings were published in The Canadian Medical Association Journal.
The American Academy of Pediatrics also warns against using strong verbal abuse or shame to discipline a child. These types of punishment can also cause long-term problems for a child.
Instead, they suggest other types of punishment that are appropriate for the age of the child.
For younger children, punishment could be taking away a favorite toy. For older children, a parent can limit the time the child spends watching television or playing with computers or electronic games.
And that's the Health & Lifestyle report. I'm Anna Matteo.
1. be good for 有利的；有益的；
It's probably good for you to get some criticism now and then.
2. result in 导致；引起；造成；
The cyclone has resulted in many thousands of deaths.
3. lead to 招致；致使；导致；
Eating too much sugar can lead to health problems.
4. take away 拿走；夺走；
The Official Assignee normally would not take away those items which are necessary for your living.
在一些家长看来，在孩子举止不当时打孩子屁股是常见的惩罚方式 。实际上，家长可能认为体罚对孩子有好处，能教导他们在未来举止得当 。
但是，一个一流的儿童健康专家小组认为，事实恰恰相反 。这些专家表示，打孩子屁股不仅没有效果，甚至可能会对孩子造成长期伤害 。
该学会在10月份发表的报告中警告称，打孩子屁股可能会产生长期影响 。这些影响包括“好斗、脑部变化、滥用药物以及成年后的自杀行为” 。
该报告承认，不是所有被打屁股的孩子在之后的生活中都会产生这些问题 。报告评论称：“虽然许多被打屁股的孩子会长成开心健康的大人，但是现有证据表明，打孩子屁股不是必要的，而且可能导致长期伤害 。”
近几年，许多美国专家一直建议家长不要使用体罚措施 。许多其他国家已经禁止了体罚 。瑞典在1966年就禁止了体罚，是首个采取这一措施的国家 。
曼尼托巴大学的琼·达兰特是儿童发育以及暴力如何影响儿童方面的专家 。她也是这份报告的作者之一 。她的合著者是来自渥太华东安省儿童医院的罗恩·恩索姆 。
达兰特和恩索姆对20年来已发表的关于体罚长期影响的研究进行了调研 。他们发现，这类惩罚会使儿童变得更具攻击性和反社会性 。他们写道，暴力会影响大脑发育和正常运转的能力 。他们还发现，暴力会导致抑郁和药物滥用 。
美国儿科学会还警告不要使用强硬的言语辱骂或羞辱来惩罚孩子 。这些惩罚方式也会给孩子造成长期问题 。
对于年龄较小的孩子，可以拿走他们最喜欢的玩具来进行惩罚 。而对于年龄较大的孩子，家长可以限制他们看电视、玩电脑或玩电子游戏的时间 。
以上是健康生活报道 。我是安娜·马迪奥 。