From VOA Learning English, this is the Health Report in Special English.
Translators Without Borders is an American nonprofit group. It provides language services to nongovernmental organizations such as, yes, Doctors Without Borders. The group recently trained some new translators in Nairobi in how to put health information into local languages for Kenyans.
For health translators, finding the rights words is not just about language but also culture.
Photo: Cathy Majtenyi
Health education translators like Susan Mwangi, right, in Kenya have to choose their words carefully to avoid offending cultural sensitivities
Muthoni Gichohi is a manager for Family Health Options Kenya, the group that organized the training. She says she has no problem expressing the names of body parts in English. But as a Kikuyu she says there are some words in her first language that may be "provocative" if she said them in public.
MUTHONI GICHOHI: "So I have got to really put it in another way that it is still delivering the same message, but the words will be different."
Trainer Paul Warambo says the same issue arises with Kenya's national language.
PAUL WARAMBO: "Sometimes you are also forced to use euphemisms -- use a language that is more acceptable to the people. For example, in Swahili, we will not call a body part -- the vagina, for example -- we will not call it by its name. We use kitu chake --- her thing. You do not just mention it by the name, you say 'her thing.'"
The culture of a community will largely decide how words and expressions are translated into socially acceptable language.
In some cases, the way people in a culture think about an activity or object becomes the translated name for that activity or object.
Paul Warambo explains how the term "sexual intercourse" is commonly translated from English into Ki'Swahili.
PAUL WARAMBO: "We always say, in Ki'Swahili, 'kutenda kitendo kibaya' -- to do something bad. So, imagine sex was associated with something bad, emanating from the African cultural context."
Whether or not a community will accept or even listen to a message is especially important in health care.
Lori Thicke co-founded Translators Without Borders in nineteen ninety-three. She says, in general, a lot of development organizations have often overlooked the importance of language in changing health behavior.
LORI THICKE: "It is true that people do not think of translation. It is absolutely not on the radar, but it is so critical if you think about it, for people to get information, whether it is how to take their medication, whether it is where to find supplies in a crisis situation."
Muthoni Gichohi and her team recently opened a health information center in a Maasai community. She learned that young Maasai cannot say certain things in the presence of elders. Also, men are usually the ones who speak at public gatherings, so people might not accept a message given by a woman.
And that's the VOA Special English Health Report. I'm Faith Lapidus.
Harry claims to be an anarchist but he's really only striking an attitude to be provocative.
"Pass away" is a euphemism for "die".
3.emanate v. 散发, 发出
The idea originally emanated from his brother.
Muthoni Gichohi是“肯尼亚家庭医疗选择组织”的管理者，该组织负责提供培训 。她说，她用英语来表达身体部位没有问题，但作为基库尤人，她说自己母语中的一些词汇如果在公众场合用的话，可能会有“挑衅”意味 。
Muthoni Gichohi：“所以我必须用另一种方式来表达同样的意思，但所用的词汇是不一样的 。”
培训员Paul Warambo说，肯尼亚官方语言也有这个问题 。
Paul Warambo：“有时必须用词婉转，使用更容易被人们接受的语言 。比如，在斯瓦希里语中，‘阴道’一词是不能直呼其名的 。而用kitu chake，意思是‘她的东西’ 。不能直接说这个名字，而用‘她的东西’来代替 。”
Paul Warambo解释了“性交”这个单词通常是如何从英语翻译成斯瓦希里语 。
Paul Warambo：“在斯瓦希里语中，'kutenda kitendo kibaya'的意思是干坏事 。所以，在非洲文化背景下，性与不好的东西相关联 。”
Lori Thicke于1993年合作创办了“无国界翻译组织”，她说，通常情况下，很多发展组织会忽略语言在改变医疗行为上的重要性 。
Lori Thicke：“事实上，人们不会考虑翻译问题 。翻译不会受到关注，但想想看，这是很重要的，无论是人们获取信息，还是如何得到药物，或是在危急情况下找到供给 。”
Muthoni Gichohi和她的团队最近在一个马赛社区创建了医疗信息中心 。她了解到，马赛年轻人不会当着长者的面说一些东西 。而且，在公众场合发言的通常都是男人，所以人们可能不会接受女人提供的信息 。