From VOA Learning English, this is the Health Report.
Five million American children and teenagers have Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder, commonly known as ADHD.
ADHD makes it difficult - if not impossible - to stay with a duty until it is complete.
Katherine Ellison knows the problem well. She is a mother who was always yelling at her son to be quiet, to sit still, to stay on task. She did not know that he had ADHD. She also did not know that she had it too.
Ms. Ellison wrote a book about the issue with her son, Buzz. VOA's Faiza Elmasry talked to her about, "Buzz: A Year of Paying Attention."
Buzz Ellison is a child who had many problems in elementary school. He could not sit still. He was constantly jumping up and down in class. He did not pay attention to his teachers and could not focus on the task at hand.
As a result, his mother says, he was always in trouble. He also got bullied. And his teachers gave him a lot of negative feedback.
"His attitude towards school really changed. I think he got bullied both by his peers and his teachers who insisted that he could do things that he really wasn't capable of doing at that age and remembering things and they gave him a lot of negative feedback."
His mother, Katherine Ellison, is a Pulitzer Prize-winning reporter. She did not understand why he behaved the way he did. And she admits that her behavior was only making the situation worse.
"I was making things worse often by being anxious or being impatient or not understanding him. And I realized at some point that I really hadn't hugged him in a while. And I wasn't smiling when he came into the room because we were just having such a hard time."
When Buzz was nine doctors identified his problem. They said he had ADHD. And, like many parents of children with ADHD, Ellison learned she had the disorder as well. She was in her late 40s.
She says that like many people with ADD or ADHD life can be a rollercoaster ride – a life with many ups and downs, high points and low points.
"I, like many people with ADD, had a roller coaster of a life. For instance, I got sued for 11-million dollars for a reporting error that I made in one of my first years as a newspaper reporter. And two years later, I won a Pulitzer Prize. So these are the kinds of things that often happen when you got this disorder; you're capable of really amazing things and very humiliating, terrible things."
So, the mother and son teamed to write a book about their experience. Ms. Ellison says she was happy that ADHD became a project for them instead of a fight between them.
"My son and I started out by writing a contract together, which was terrific because it changed the perspective from being a shameful problem that we had to a joint business project. And I also knew that he would cooperate with me. He wanted a percentage of the profits from the book. I was willing to do that because all of a sudden we're partners rather than antagonists."
They explored the world of ADHD for a year. They researched treatments and doctors.
More Cases of ADHD Identified in Children
ADHD is identified more and more. But much about the disorder remains unknown, including its cause or causes. American and Swedish researchers have released a study that links older fathers and ADHD. It found babies fathered by men over 44 years old are 13 times more likely to develop the disorder. JAMA Psychiatry, a journal of the American Medical Association, published the study.
Peter Levine is a doctor of children's medicine in California. The pediatrician specializes in treating children with ADHD. He says there are many misunderstandings about the disorder.
"One of the biggest misconceptions is parents think that this is their fault."
And, he says others find fault with these parents, too.
"Other parents will blame them for it because they see the way these kids acting and they'll (will) say, ‘What's wrong with you? Why can't you control your child?' So parents will blame themselves. Another misconception is that the child is really not trying, because often times these kids are trying harder than other kids to control their behaviors. That leads to a lot of difficulties and frustrations."
Mr. Levine says the first step in dealing with ADHD is getting the facts straight.
"In America, the diagnosis rate in children generally is quoted in the range of about 3 to 7 percent of children. It's more common in boys, by about three to one. This is a highly inheritable disorder. They can't get over ADHD. I mean it's not something that you can make go away. As many as two-third of the children who have problems with ADHD will have difficulties as adults. You can't cure it. You have to find ways of coping with it."
Changing Parenting Styles for ADHD Kids
He says that one of the most effective ways to deal with ADHD is to change the way you parent.
And that's what Katherine Ellison did.
She says she is now paying more attention to her son, spending more time with him, being less judgmental and giving him more positive feedback.
And Buzz is reacting well to these changes. He has fewer outbursts at home and at school. He is more centered on school work. And he has a new interest – playing tennis.
And that's the Health Report. I'm Anna Matteo.
1.hyperactivity n. 极度活跃；活动过度
Karen complained of hyperactivity and rest-lessness.
2.peer vi. 凝视，盯着看；窥视 vt. 封为贵族；与…同等 n. 贵族；同等的人
His engaging personality made him popular with his peers.
3.rollercoaster n. 过山车
It's great to go on the roller coaster five times and not be sick.
4.antagonist n. 敌手；[解剖] 对抗肌；[生化] 拮抗物；反协同试剂
Spassky had never previously lost to his antagonist.
5.judgmental adj. 审判的；妄下结论的 [表不满]
We tried not to seem critical or judgmental while giving advice that would protect him from ridicule.
1.And, he says others find fault with these parents, too.
find fault with 挑剔；批评；抱怨
He loved best to find fault with me.
There was not a single thing about her that one could find fault with.
“像很多多动症患者那样，我也有人生的过山车。比如，我做报社记者的第一年时因为犯下1100万美元的报道错误被起诉，两年后，我获得了普利策奖 。所以这就是多动症患者经常经历的事，能做了不起的事，也有令人耻辱、可怕的事 。”
现在出现了越来越多的多动症，但这种病症仍有很多未知的地方，包括其起因。美国和瑞典研究者发布一项研究，认为年长的父亲和多动症有关 。研究发现44岁以上父亲生育的孩子患有多动症的几率比一般孩子高13倍，美国医学会精神科期刊发表了这项研究 。
“在美国，一般的说法是儿童的确诊率是3%到7%之间，男孩中更常见，大约是三比一。这是一种高度遗传的疾病，他们无法克服多动症 。我是说这不是你能甩掉的，三分之二的多动症儿童在成年后会遇到困难，这是无法治愈的，必须想办法来解决 。”