From VOA Learning English, this is the Health & Lifestyle Report.
Autism spectrum disorder is a developmental disability. People with autism have trouble communicating and with social skills. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says the person also might repeat some behaviors and not want change in their daily activities. Some people with the condition need a lot of help. Others need less.
CDC officials say autism affects one in every 68 children in the United States. More boys than girls are believed to have the condition. But the number of cases appears to be growing. It is unclear whether the growing number shows a real increase or comes from more knowledge about this disorder.
Symptoms of autism
Common signs of autism include trouble making eye contact and a delay in learning how to speak. Some people with severe autism never learn how to talk. Many people with autism also have difficulty understanding facial expressions and the feelings of others. They also have trouble making friends of the same age.
Doctors have learned how to recognize autism, but much is still unknown about its causes.
Researchers at Harvard University have come closer to finding answers. They found that women exposed to the highest levels of fine particulate air pollution late in their pregnancies are two times more likely to give birth to a child with autism. The findings appeared in Environmental Health Perspectives -- a publication of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.
Marc Weisskopf led the Harvard researchers. Mr. Weisskopf studies environmental conditions that cause sickness, developmental disabilities and deaths. He and his team studied women who were late in their pregnancies, shortly before they gave birth. In all, they examined medical records from all 50 U.S. states for about 116,000 mothers and their children.
The study found that the women who were around high levels of fine particulate matter air pollution were at highest risk of having an autistic child. The increased risk of these women was two times that of women who lived in areas with low levels of fine particulate pollution.
The researchers found that the timing of exposure to pollution was important. They found no increased risk of autism in children whose mothers were around high levels of pollution before becoming pregnant. And the study found air pollution does not seem to increase the risk of children developing autism after they are born.
Marc Weisskopf says this finding does not prove there is a direct link between pollution and autism. But, he adds, it has ratcheted up, or increased, his team's confidence that there is a relationship between the two.
"Finding an association like this that's very specific in time rules out a lot of other possible explanations for that. So, it really ratchets up the strength of our confidence that we've got something really related to the air pollution here."
What can pregnant women do?
Mr. Weisskopf says pregnant women should avoid air pollution as much as possible. But he warns that other things may increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder.
"You can avoid being in extremely polluted cities during pregnancy if possible. You can also choose to go running in a park rather than next to a street. But that said, I think also it's very important to recognize that autism spectrum disorders is a very multi-factorial disorder. And there are lots of reasons why risk could be increased."
Autism is believed to result from a combination of environmental and genetic factors.
Autism Speaks is an organization that helps families with autistic children. Paul Wang is head of medical research at Autism Speaks. He says the findings are very compelling. He notes that during the last three months of pregnancy, the brain of the fetus develops very quickly. He says the study does not change his group's main suggestion: focus on treatment and educational therapies.
"For parents of children who have already been diagnosed, the focus should continue to be on treatment for them, on the behavioral, educational therapies that are available and that we know can help kids who are diagnosed with autism."
For now, Marc Weisskopf says researchers are trying to identify the exact substances in air pollution that increase the risk of autism.
And that's the Health and Lifestyle Report from VOA Learning English. I'm Anna Matteo.
1.autism n. [心理][内科] 孤独症；自我中心主义
Einstein and Newton may have had a form of autism.
2.particulate adj. 微粒的 n. 微粒，微粒状物质
These particulate creatures are hardly visible to the naked eyes.
3.compelling adj. 引人注目的；强制的；激发兴趣的 v. 强迫；以强力获得（compel的ing形式）
Factual and forensic evidence makes a suicide verdict the most compelling answer to the mystery of his death.
4.fetus n. 胎儿，胎
Pregnant women who are heavy drinkers risk damaging the unborn fetus.
1.So, it really ratchets up the strength of our confidence that we've got something really related to the air pollution here.
ratchet up 逐渐升高；略微调高
He fears inflation will ratchet up as the year ends.
Audiences' expectations are ratcheted up as they are exposed to high-budget productions.
研究人员发现，接触污染的时机非常重要。他们发现，在怀孕前接触高污染的母亲生下自闭症儿童的风险没有增加 。该研究还发现，空气污染似乎并未增加出生后儿童患上自闭症的风险 。