听力材料译本：Making Joint Efforts to Tide over Difficulties—President Hu Jintao's Speech at the G-20 Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy in Washington on November 15, 2008
Distinguished President Bush, Colleagues,
It is a great pleasure to meet you all in Washington. First, I would like to thank President Bush for his kind invitation and very thoughtful arrangements.
At present, the international financial crisis has spread from parts of the world to the entire globe, from the developed countries to the emerging markets, and from the financial sector to the real economy, which has exerted a severe impact on the world economic growth and people's lives. Therefore, it is significant that we gather here to discuss measures on maintaining international financial stability and promoting world economic growth at this critical moment.
The current crisis we are going through has hardly been seen since the 1930s in terms of the scope of repercussions, depth of impact and strength of its shock. There are many reasons behind the financial crisis, including both improper macroeconomic policies and insufficient financial regulation. Without correct understanding of those reasons, we will hardly be able to draw lessons from them and avoid a similar crisis in the future. Since its onset, the international community has taken immediate action and measures to address the different aspects of the crisis. We look forward to seeing expected results in the very near future. To effectively cope with the financial crisis, countries in the world should nurture confidence, and increase and intensify cooperation. The top priority of the international community at the moment is to take all the necessary measures to restore market confidence as soon as possible and curb the spread of the financial crisis. The major developed economies should take up their due responsibilities and obligations, implement macroeconomic policies that are conducive to the economic and financial stability and growth both at home and internationally, take active steps to stabilize their own and international financial markets, and safeguard investors' interests. Meanwhile, other countries should enhance macroeconomic policy coordination, expand economic and financial information sharing, and deepen cooperation in international financial regulation so as to create necessary conditions for stability in both national and international financial markets.
We are now seeing a world economic downturn and an increasing number of unstabilizing factors. To maintain economic growth is the cornerstone of addressing the financial crisis. Countries should adjust their macroeconomic policies, take necessary fiscal and monetary measures to actively promote economic development and avoid a global economic recession. Joint efforts should be made to stabilize the international energy and food markets, contain speculation and build an enabling environment for the growth of the world economy. The international community should pay special attention to preventing various forms of trade and investment protectionism and push for early progress of the Doha round of negotiations.
The international community should earnestly draw lessons from the financial crisis and make necessary reforms of the international financial system based on full consultations among all stakeholders. Reform of the international financial system should aim at establishing a new international financial order that is fair, just, inclusive and orderly and fosters an institutional environment conducive to sound global economic development. The reform should be conducted in a comprehensive, balanced, incremental and pragmatic manner. A comprehensive reform needs a general design which should focus on improving not only the international financial system, monetary system and financial institutions, but also international financial rules and procedures. It should reflect the general laws and principles of financial regulation and also take into account the development stages and characteristics of different economies. A balanced reform is based on overall consideration, seeks a balance among the interests of all parties and builds a decision-making and management mechanism with wider and more effective participation. An incremental reform is one that seeks gradual progress and should proceed in a phased manner, starting with the easier issues, and achieve the final objectives of reform through sustained efforts under the precondition of maintaining stability of the international financial market. A pragmatic reform is one that stresses practical results. All reform measures should contribute to the international financial stability, the global economic growth and the welfare of people in all countries.
Based on those considerations, China proposes implementing the following reform measures: First, stepping up international cooperation in financial regulation and improving the international regulatory system. A code of conduct for rating agencies should be established, surveillance of global capital flow strengthened, regulation of various financial institutions and intermediate organizations enhanced and transparency of financial markets and products improved. Second, advancing reform of the international financial institutions and their decision-making mechanisms and increasing the representation and say of the developing countries in such institutions; an early warning system with global coverage—especially for the major international financial centers—— should be established, the internal governing structure of these institutions improved, a timely and effective crisis response and relief system set up, and the implementation capabilities of the institutions enhanced. Third, encouraging regional financial cooperation and mutual assistance in maintaining liquidity; the regional financial infrastructure should be improved and the regional fund assistance mechanisms given full play. Fourth, improving the international currency system and steadily promoting its diversity; the stability of the international currency system should be supported by all.
Dear colleagues, as the economic globalization moves ahead, the economic and financial ties among countries grow tighter. The ongoing financial crisis has not only created severe shocks on the developed countries but has had repercussions for the developing ones. And such impacts will continue to expand. We must fully recognize the situation at hand. The developing economies are less developed, usually with a single-level economic structure and highly vulnerable financial system. When addressing the financial crisis, the international community should pay particular attention to and mitigate the damage to developing countries, especially the least developed countries.
First, we must earnestly help developing countries maintain their financial stability and economic growth. The international community, especially the developed world, should shoulder its responsibility and obligation and take pragmatic measures to help the developing economies, particularly those in Africa. When developed countries put forward certain macro-economic policies, they should be mindful of the potential impact on the developing economies and avoid exacerbating their already difficult situation. The international financial institutions should relax their loan conditions, establish more facilitating mechanisms, deliver timely aid to the developing economies severely battered by the financial crisis and support the efforts by the emerging economies to sustain their steady economic growth.
Second, aid to the developing countries should be maintained or increased. The developing economies are facing severe challenges of development and the financial crisis has worsened their situation even more. How to overcome the crisis, and in the meantime realize the UN Millennium Development Goals, are the common responsibility of the entire world. The developed countries should honor their commitment to aid the developing countries and accelerate the international poverty reduction process. As for the LDCs, their debts should be exempted, tariffs against their exports lowered and technological transfers expanded. Meanwhile, they should be given maximum help in building infrastructure and self-development capacities.
Third, the financial stability of the developing countries should be earnestly ensured. Based on their own individual development situations, the developing countries should adopt the right macro-economic policies, improve their financial systems, enhance their crisis-resistant capacities and, in the meantime, reform their development approaches, adjust the economic structures and maintain steady growth.
Colleagues! This year, China was hit with several massive natural disasters. China has also felt the impact of the international financial crisis. We have made timely adjustment to our policies and strengthened macroeconomic regulation in response to the development of the crisis. China has maintained a stable and relatively fast economic growth and the basic momentum of economic development. The steady and relatively fast growth of China is in itself an important contribution to international financial stability and world economic growth. The Chinese government will continue to adopt effective measures to make its macro control more predictable, targeted and effective. It will actively expand domestic demand—especially consumption demand, fundamentally change the economic development mode, adjust the economic structure, strengthen the agricultural foundation, increase the incomes of farmers, reform deeper, open wider and keep stable and relatively fast economic growth so as to play a constructive role in promoting steady development of the world economy.
To promote economic growth, the Chinese government has a series of measures, including lowering the bank reserve requirements, lowering the interest rates for savings and loans, and reducing the corporate tax burdens. Recently, more forceful measures for stimulating domestic demand have been put forward. We have decided to increase the treasury investment by 100 billion yuan this year for quality-of-life projects, infrastructure projects, eco-environment construction and post-disaster reconstruction. The central government's investment is expected to bring along an additional 400 billion of social investment. From the fourth quarter of this year to the end of 2010, China will invest a total of 4 trillion yuan in these projects. The implementation of these measures will definitely promote China's economic growth and also benefit the world economy.
As a responsible member of the international community, China has been taking an active part in the international cooperation to address the financial crisis, and has made positive contribution in safeguarding international financial stability and promoting world economic growth. In the spirit of upholding responsibility, China will be willingly involved in international cooperation to maintain international financial stability and promote world economic growth. It will support international financial institutions in increasing their financing capacities in response to developments in the international financial market, and extend greater support for the developing countries influenced by the crisis. We stand ready to actively participate in the trade financing plan of the World Bank International Finance Corporation.
Colleagues! During the recently-concluded seventh Asia-Europe Meeting, leaders of East Asia had some in-depth discussion on how to strengthen regional economic and financial cooperation, and agreed to prioritize strengthening financial cooperation and prioritize the prevention and resistance of the financial crisis in our regional cooperation, promote flexible and varied forms of regional financial cooperation, fully utilize the bilateral currency swap agreements that have been signed, promote the active and prudent development of the Asian capital markets, accelerate the process for an East-Asia Free Trade Area, support the ASEAN integration efforts, and prevent and fight against trade protectionism. Leaders of Asia and Europe also explored the current international financial and economic situation and agreed to make full use of regional cooperative frameworks such as the ASEM for information sharing, policy exchanges and supervision management and other pragmatic purposes, so as to effectively monitor, prevent and address financial risks and promote a healthy and steady world economic growth.
Colleagues! The stability of the international financial markets and sustained development of the global economy are crucial to the well being of all countries and people. Let us hold hands to overcome the difficulties through concerted efforts, and let us make our own contribution to maintain international financial stability and promote global economic growth. Thank you all!