JUDY WOODRUFF:In the 1930s, when the Nazis began their occupation of Europe, they set up ghettos for more than one million Jews, forcing them to live and work in fenced-off communities. Once the Nazis arrived at the Final Solution, the mass murder of Jews, most ghetto residents were killed.Some 25,000 of them, though, escaped the ghettos to hide in the woods, but few survived.The members of one family who spent years in the forest are now telling their story.Author Rebecca Frankel writes about them in her new book, "Into the Forest."She recently sat down with "NewsHour" producer Ali Rogin.
ALI ROGIN: Rebecca Frankel, thank you so much for being here. Your new book, "Into the Forest," is first and foremost a story of survival, and at the heart of it is the Rabinowitz family. So, can you tell me a little bit about them and what they endured?
REBECCA FRANKEL, Author, "Into the Forest: A Holocaust Story of Survival, Triumph, and Love": Sure. So, the Rabinowitz family was a normal family in 1930s Poland. They lived in a very small town called Zhetel. It was Morris and Miriam were married, and they had two young, very sweet, adorable daughters, Rochel and Tania. And they were basically just going about their lives. Morris was a lumber dealer. Miriam owned a small shop. And they were, of course, a Jewish family, which, ultimately, as the 1930s would continue and as Germany's influence in Poland and the politics started having a meddling influence, certainly, that changed for the worse.
ALI ROGIN:Their fortunes change. They are sent into the ghetto. And tell us about what their experience was like in the ghetto.
REBECCA FRANKEL: So, when the Germans invaded and they broke their pact with Russia in 1941, that's when things for Zhetel started to get really bad. All of the Jews of the small town in Zhetel, they were interned in a ghetto. And then the selection started. And what this meant, of course, was that the Germans were separating out the Jews that could provide some sort of service, were of some value in terms of labor, or they were doctors or craftsmen or architects or engineers.And the people who suffered most then, of course, were small children without parents, the elderly, the infirm, and even just women who didn't have working certificates.
But one thing for these small communities in these more forest-adjacent towns in Poland and Belarussia and other countries closer to Russia, one thing started to give them hope. And that was this idea that they could run away to the forest.
And what was happening then was that the Soviet fighters who had been sort of behind enemy lines at this point were regrouping into guerrilla fighting units, and they were slowly mounting this outside fight against Germany.And so these Jews in the ghetto, not many of them were able to do it, but some of them did escape their ghettos, and they did run to the forest.
And, of course, this is what happened with the Rabinowitz family. They were able to escape in August of 1942, right during the most terrible thing that happened to the Jews of Zhetel, which, of course, was the liquidation of the ghetto, when the Nazis basically killed all of the remaining Jews, except for a very small number.
The areas under occupation contained major industrial areas.
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The schools were adjacent but there were separate doors.
朱迪·伍德拉夫：上世纪30年代，当纳粹开始占领欧洲时，他们为100多万犹太人建立了隔离区，迫使他们在隔离的社区中生活和工作。一旦纳粹找到了最终解决方案，即大规模屠杀犹太人，大多数贫民窟犹太居民被杀害 。然而，他们中约有2.5万人逃离了贫民窟，躲进了树林，但幸存下来的人寥寥无几 。一个在森林里生活了数年的家庭成员现在正在讲述他们的故事 。作家丽贝卡·弗兰克尔在她的新书《走进森林》中描述了他们 。她最近接受了《新闻一小时》制片人阿里·罗金的采访 。
《走进森林:关于生存、胜利和爱的大屠杀故事》的作者丽贝卡·弗兰克尔:当然。因此，拉比诺维茨家族在20世纪30年代的波兰是一个普通的家庭 。他们住在一个叫哲特尔的小镇上 。莫里斯和米里亚姆结婚了，他们有两个非常可爱的年轻女儿，罗切尔和塔尼亚 。他们基本上只是过着自己的小日子 。莫里斯是一个木材商人 。米里亚姆开了一家小商店 。当然，他们是一个犹太家庭，最终，随着20世纪30年代的延续，随着德国对波兰的影响和政治干预，当然，情况变得更糟了 。
阿里·罗金:他们的命运改变了。他们被送到犹太人隔离区 。告诉我们他们在犹太人隔离区的经历 。
丽贝卡·弗兰克尔:1941年，德国人入侵俄罗斯，撕毁了与俄罗斯的协议，这对哲泰尔小镇来说，事情开始变得非常糟糕。哲特尔小镇上所有的犹太人，都被关押在犹太人区 。然后选择开始了 。当然，这意味着，德国人将能够提供某种服务的，有劳动价值的犹太人分离出来，他们可能是医生，工匠，建筑师或工程师 。当然，当时受苦最深的人是没有父母的小孩、老人、体弱者，甚至是没有工作证的女性 。
当时的情况是，当时处于敌后的苏联战士重新集结成游击部队。他们缓慢地发动了对德国的外部战争 。所以在犹太人隔离区，没有多少人能做到这样，但有些人确实逃离了犹太人隔离区，他们确实逃到了森林里 。