Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English. I'm Steve Ember. Today, we tell about life in the United States during the nineteen sixties. The nineteen sixties began with the election of the first president born in the twentieth century, John Kennedy. For many Americans, the young president was the symbol of a spirit of hope for the nation. When Kennedy was murdered in nineteen sixty-three, many felt that their hopes died, too. This was especially true of young people, and members and supporters of minority groups.
A time of innocence and hope soon began to look like a time of anger and violence. Many Americans protested to demand an end to the unfair treatment of black citizens. Many more protested to demand an end to the war in Vietnam. And many protested to demand full equality for women. By the middle of the nineteen sixties, it had become almost impossible for President Lyndon Johnson to leave the White House without facing protesters against the war in Vietnam. In March of nineteen sixty-eight, Johnson announced that he would not run for another term in office. In addition to President Kennedy, two other influential Americans were murdered during the nineteen sixties. Civil rights leader Martin Luther King Junior was shot in Memphis, Tennessee, in nineteen sixty-eight. Several weeks later, Robert Kennedy -- John Kennedy's brother -- was shot in Los Angeles, California. He was campaigning to win his party's nomination for president. The two murders resulted in riots in cities across the country.
The unrest and violence affected many young Americans. The effect seemed especially bad because of the time in which they had grown up. By the middle nineteen fifties, most of their parents had jobs that paid well. They expressed satisfaction with their lives. They taught their children what were called middle class values. These included a belief in God, hard work and service to their country. Later, many young Americans began to question these beliefs. They felt that their parents' values were not enough to help them deal with the social and racial difficulties of the nineteen sixties. They rebelled by letting their hair grow long and by wearing unusual clothing. Their dissatisfaction was strongly expressed in music. Rock and roll music had become very popular in America in the nineteen fifties. Some people, however, did not approve of it. They thought it was too sexual. These people disliked the rock and roll of the nineteen sixties even more. They found the words especially unpleasant.
The musicians themselves thought the words were extremely important. As singer and song writer Bob Dylan said, "There would be no music without the words." Bob Dylan produced many songs of social protest. He wrote antiwar songs before the war in Vietnam became a violent issue in the United States. One was called "Blowin' in the Wind." In addition to songs of social protest, rock and roll music continued to be popular in America during the nineteen sixties. The most popular group, however, was not American. It was British -- the Beatles -- four rock and roll musicians from Liverpool. The Beatles' song "I Want to Hold Your Hand" went on sale in the United States at the end of nineteen sixty-three. Within five weeks, it was the biggest-selling record in America. Other songs, including some by the Beatles, sounded more revolutionary. They spoke about drugs and sex, although not always openly. In the nineteen sixties, "Do your own thing" became a common expression. It meant to do whatever you wanted, without feeling guilty.
1.run for 竞选；竞选职位
He has already stated his intention to run for election.
2.result in 导致；结果是
Fifty per cent of road accidents result in head injuries.
3.deal with 处理；对付
The government must deal with this as a matter of urgency.
4.on sale 出售的；上市的
The fish are on sale from our own coastal waters.
欢迎收听VOA慢速英语之建国史话节目，我是史蒂夫·恩伯。今天，我们将讲述20世纪60年代美国的生活 。20世纪60年代，始于第一位出生于20世纪的总统约翰·肯尼迪当选 。对许多美国人来说，这位年轻的总统是国家希望精神的象征 。当肯尼迪在1963年遇害时，许多人觉得他们的希望也破灭了，年轻人以及少数群体的成员和支持者的这种感觉更加明显 。
天真无邪和充满希望的时代，很快开始变得像一个充满愤怒和暴力的时代。许多美国人抗议要求结束对黑人公民的不公平待遇，更多的人要求结束越南战争，还有许多人要求女性获得完全的平等地位 。到20世纪60年代中期，林登·约翰逊总统离开白宫时，不面对反对越南战争的抗议者几乎是一件不可能的事情 。1968年3月，约翰逊宣布他将不再竞选连任 。除肯尼迪总统外，还有两位有影响力的美国人在1960年代遭遇谋杀 。民权运动领袖马丁·路德·金于1968年在田纳西州的孟菲斯遭枪杀 。几周后，约翰·肯尼迪的弟弟罗伯特·肯尼迪在加利福尼亚州洛杉矶被枪杀，他正在为赢得党内总统提名而参加竞选 。这两起谋杀案导致全国各个城市发生骚乱 。
动乱和暴力影响了许多美国年轻人。由于他们成长所处的时间，其效果似乎特别糟糕 。到20世纪50年代中期，他们的父母大部分都有收入丰厚的工作，他们对自己的生活表示满意，他们教孩子什么叫做中产阶级价值观，包括对上帝的信仰，努力工作和为国家服务 。后来，许多美国年轻人开始质疑这些信仰 。他们觉得父母的价值观不足以帮助他们应对20世纪60年代的社会和种族问题 。他们蓄长发、穿怪异的服装，以此作为反抗 。他们的不满在音乐中得到了强烈的表达 。20世纪50年代，摇滚乐在美国非常流行 。然而，有些人对此并不赞成 。他们觉得它太过性感 。这些人更不喜欢20世纪60年代的摇滚乐，认为歌词极不悦耳 。
音乐家们自己认为，歌词特别重要。正如歌手兼作曲鲍勃·迪伦所说，“没有歌词就没有音乐 。”鲍勃·迪伦创作了许多抗议社会的歌曲 。在越南战争成为美国的暴力事件之前，他写过反战歌曲，其中一首叫《随风而逝》 。除了抗议社会的歌曲，摇滚乐于20世纪60年代继续在美国风行 。然而，最受欢迎的乐队不是美国人，而是英国人组成的披头士乐队，他们是四位来自利物浦的摇滚音乐家 。披头士乐队的歌曲《我想牵牵你的手》于1963年底在美国发行 。在五周内，这是美国销量最好的专辑 。其他歌曲，包括披头士乐队的一些歌曲，听起来更具革命性 。这些歌曲谈论毒品和性，尽管并不总是公开 。在20世纪60年代，“做你自己的事”成为一个普遍的表达，其意思是做你想做的事情，而不用感到内疚 。