But in April nineteen forty-five, the scientists told the new president, Harry Truman, that they were almost ready to test their invention. Just three months later, they exploded the world's first atomic bomb in the desert in the southwestern state of New Mexico. Truman had to make a difficult decision. He knew the atomic bomb would cause widespread death and suffering if it was used on a Japanese city. But he was willing to do anything to avoid the need for American troops to invade Japan. In Japan, a new prime minister and government were searching for a way to end the war. But Truman believed that the Japanese were still not ready to surrender. And he felt it was his duty to end the war as soon as possible.
On August sixth, nineteen forty-five, the first atomic bomb fell on the city of Hiroshima. Three days later, a second A-bomb fell on the city of Nagasaki. "Having found the atomic bomb, we have used it. We shall continue to use it until we completely destroy Japan's power to make war. Only a Japanese surrender will stop us." President Truman. "It is an awful responsibility which has come to us. We thank God that it has come to us, instead of to our enemy." The Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Japan estimates that between one hundred fifty thousand and two hundred forty-six thousand people died within two to four months of the bombings. The bombings left Japan's rulers with no choice. In less than one week, they surrendered. "I received this afternoon a message from the Japanese government. I deem this reply a full acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration, which specifies the unconditional surrender of Japan. In the reply there is no qualification. Arrangements are now being made for the formal signing of the surrender terms at the earliest possible moment. General Douglas MacArthur has been appointed the supreme allied commander to receive the Japanese surrender."
In this newsreel, we hear General MacArthur accepting the surrender of the Japanese Empire. "The battleship Missouri, fifty-three thousand ton flagship of Admiral Halsey's Third Fleet, becomes the scene of an unforgettable ceremony marking the complete and formal surrender of Japan. General of the Army Douglas MacArthur, supreme allied commander for the occupation of Japan, boards the Missouri. Fleet Admiral Nimitz, Pacific fleet commander, and Admiral Halsey welcome MacArthur and his Chief of Staff General Sutherland aboard. "It is Sunday, September second, nineteen forty-five." "We are gathered here, representatives of the major warring powers, to conclude a solemn agreement whereby peace may be restored. The issues involving divergent ideals and ideologies have been determined on the battlefields of the world and hence are not for our discussion or debate. "The terms and conditions upon which surrender of the Japanese Imperial Forces is here to be given and accepted are contained in the instrument of surrender now before you. I now invite the representatives of the emperor of Japan and the Japanese government and the Japanese Imperial Headquarters to sign the instrument of surrender at the places indicated."
American scientists and engineers proved that a war could be won with research as well as bullets. And all Americans learned how much could be gained when government agencies, scientists and universities worked together for common goals. Roosevelt had understood this long before the war ended. He asked Vannevar Bush to study how the federal government could work with scientists and universities in peacetime. Bush offered a number of ideas to President Truman at the end of the war. He told the president that science was important to America's progress and safety. He called on the federal government to support scientific study and education. Professor Bush said that the nation's universities should be greatly strengthened. He called for the creation of a new government agency to provide money for science projects.
Truman and Congress agreed with Vannevar Bush. And in the next few years, American research efforts expanded. In nineteen forty-six, the Office of Naval Research was created to support basic science study in universities. In the same year, the government created the Atomic Energy Commission. And in nineteen fifty, it created the National Science Foundation to provide support to thousands of the nation's best scientists. In the years that followed, American science would grow beyond the wildest dreams of Vannevar Bush and other scientists of his time. Universities would add thousands of new students along with new laboratories and research centers. By the middle of the nineteen sixties, the federal government would spend more than thirteen billion a year for research and development. And five hundred new centers of higher learning would be created. All this investment would help make the United States the world leader in such fields as computer science, genetics and space travel.
1.as soon as possible 尽可能快；越快越好
We will get your order to you as soon as possible.
2.instead of 替代；取代
Now I can walk to work instead of going by car.
3.as well as 和……一样；既……又
The mind needs exercise as well as the body.
4.more than 多于；超过
There were more than 50 people on stage in one scene.
但是在1945年4月，科学家告诉新晋总统哈里·杜鲁门，他们准备好测试他们的发明了。仅三个月后，他们在西南部新墨西哥州的沙漠中爆炸了世界上第一颗原子弹 。杜鲁门不得不做出艰难的决定 。他知道，如果向日本的城市投放原子弹，将造成大量伤亡和苦难 。但他愿意做任何事来避免美军入侵日本 。在日本，新首相和新政府正在寻找结束战争的方法 。但杜鲁门认为，日本人还没有准备好投降，他觉得尽快结束战争是他的责任 。
1945年8月6日，第一颗原子弹落在广岛市。三天后，第二枚原子弹落在长崎市 。“研发出原子弹后，我们就使用了 。我们将继续用它，直到彻底摧毁日本发动战争的力量 。只有日本投降才能阻止我们 。”杜鲁门总统 。“这是一项可怕的责任，我们感谢上帝，它降临在我们身上，而不是我们的敌人身上 。”据日本辐射影响研究基金会估计，爆炸发生后2至4个月内，有15万至24.6万人死亡 。爆炸事件使日本统治者别无选择 。在不到一周的时间内，他们投降了 。“今天下午我收到了日本政府的消息 。我认为这一答复完全接受了《波茨坦宣言》，该宣言规定日本无条件投降 。答复中没有限定条件 。目前正在安排尽早正式签署投降条款 。道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟将军被任命为盟军最高指挥官，接受日方投降 。”
在这部新闻片中，我们听到麦克阿瑟将军接受了日本帝国的投降。尔西海军上将第三舰队的5.3万吨级旗舰舰，它成为标志着日本全面正式投降的难忘的仪式现场 。占领日本的盟军最高指挥官道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟将军登上密苏里号 。尼米兹上将，太平洋舰队司令哈尔西上将欢迎麦克阿瑟和他的参谋长萨瑟兰将军上船 。“现在是1945年9月2日星期日 。”我们聚集于此，作为主要交战大国的代表，缔结一项庄严的协议，有望恢复和平 。关于不同的理想和意识形态的问题，由二战战场所决定，因此不适合我们讨论和辩论 。“日本帝国军队在此投降的条件，已经载于你们面前的投降书中 。我现在请日本天皇、日本政府和日本帝国总部的代表，在指定地点签署投降书 。”
美国科学家和工程师们证明，可以通过子弹赢得战争，也能借助科研得以实现。所有美国人都知道，当政府机构、科学家和大学为了共同的目标一起努力时，收获巨大 。罗斯福早在战争结束前就明白了这一点 。他要求范内瓦尔·布什研究联邦政府如何在和平时期与科学家和大学合作 。在战争结束时，布什向杜鲁门总统提出了许多建议 。他告诉总统，科学对美国的进步和安全很重要，他呼吁联邦政府支持科学研究和教育 。布什教授说，应该大力加强美国大学的实力，呼吁建立新的政府机构为科学项目提供资金 。
杜鲁门和国会同意瓦内瓦尔·布什的观点。在接下来的几年里，美国的研究工作得到扩展 。1946年，成立了海军研究办公室，支持大学的基础科学研究 。同年，政府创建原子能委员会 。1950年，建立国家科学基金会，为全美成千上万的顶级科学家提供支持 。在接下来的几年里，美国科学领域的发展将超越瓦内瓦尔·布什和他那个时代其他科学家所拥有的最疯狂的梦想 。大学将增加数千名新学生，以及新实验室和研究中心 。到20世纪60年代中期，联邦政府每年将花费130亿美元用于研发，将建立500个新的高等教育中心 。所有这些投资将有助于使美国成为计算机科学、遗传学和太空旅行等领域的世界领航者 。