This is Scientific American — 60-Second Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.
The paleo diet—it's pretty trendy. Eat like a caveman, no dairy, grains, sugar and so on. But what you probably won't find on many paleo plates today?
"Pine nuts and moss and tree bark and mushrooms." Laura Weyrich, a paleomicrobiologist at the University of Adelaide in Australia. "What we would like to call the true paleo diet. It's basically what you could find in a forest if you're not eating meat."
Weyrich and her colleagues cleaned the teeth of Neandertals found in Belgium and Spain. They popped off bits of ancient dental plaque, then sequenced the DNA contained within, to see if it matched up to any known sequences today.
What they found suggests that the northern Neandertals ate a meat-heavy diet: including woolly rhino and wild sheep. Whereas their southern counterparts ate that forest-foraged vegetarian fare: mushrooms, pine nuts and moss. One of the Spanish specimens also appeared to have taken a tree-derived painkiller, related to aspirin—and might have self-medicated with antibiotic penicillium bacteria, too.
And the Neandertals' mouth microbiome, on average, resembled that of chimps more than modern humans. "They have a much healthier set of bacteria in their mouths as well. They don't have the nasty bacteria in the right proportions to chew holes in their teeth and cause periodontal disease. They really were very healthy." Their teeth, she says, are still sparkly white today. The study is in the journal Nature.
Perhaps the most intriguing finding though, might be that humans and Neandertals appeared to swap mouth microbes at one point in time...something that Weyrich says probably happened not through violent interactions, but when kissing or sharing food.
"I think this paper in general just really suggests that Neandertals weren't like this caveman brute grunting-type animal they're often described as. They had knowledge about medicines, they had knowledge about their environments, about what they could eat, and they were having friendly interactions with other species. So it's a very different picture of Neandertals."
Thanks for listening for Scientific American — 60-Second Science Science. I'm Christopher Intagliata.
旧石器时代的饮食现在非常流行 。像穴居人一样，不吃奶制品、谷物、糖等 。那现在大部分原始饮食中少了什么？
“松子、苔藓、树皮还有蘑菇 。”劳拉·温里什是澳大利亚阿德莱德大学的古微生物学家 。“我们想把这些食物称做真正的原始饮食 。如果你不吃肉，那这些基本上就是你可以在森林里找到的食物 。”
温里什和她的同事清理了在比利时和西班牙发现的尼安德特人的牙齿 。他们取出了一些古老的牙菌斑，然后对其中包含的DNA进行排序，以验证其是否和目前已知的DNA序列相匹配 。
他们发现，北方尼安德特人吃肉很多，他们吃的肉类包括披毛犀和野羊 。而南方尼安德特人吃的则是森林里能找到的素食：蘑菇、松子和苔藓 。一份来自西班牙的标本似乎也说明他们曾服用从树木中提取的止疼药，这种止疼药和阿司匹林有关，尼安德特人还可能用抗生青霉菌进行自我治疗 。
平均而言，与现代人类相比，尼安德特人的口腔微生物组与黑猩猩的相似度更高 。“他们口腔内的细菌群也更健康 。他们口腔内的脏细菌比例不会让他们咀嚼出牙洞，也不会导致牙周疾病 。尼安德特人真的非常健康 。”温里什表示，他们的牙齿依然是耀眼的白色 。这项研究结果发表在《自然》期刊上 。
“总的来说，我认为这篇论文可以表明，尼安德特人并不像他们经常被描述的那样，他们并不是野蛮、像动物一样发出咕噜声的穴居人 。他们了解药物，了解周围的环境，也知道什么食物能吃，而且他们和其他物种的互动非常友好 。可以说，这与我们认为的尼安德特人截然不同 。”
谢谢大家收听科学美国人——60秒科学 。我是克里斯托弗·因塔利亚塔 。
1. and so on 及诸如此类；等等；
例句：omorrow night, she was ready to go shopping with her mother to buy what she wanted , such as milk, bananas, apples, Hamburg and so on.
2. match up 与…配对；与…匹配；
例句：I'm sure that yellow lead matched up to that yellow socket.
3. on average 平均起来；按平均值；
例句：On average, bacterias are about 1 micrometre long.
4. in general 总的来说；总体上来看；大体上；
例句：In general her work has been good, but this essay is dreadful.