科学美国人60秒:树蛙应该金发姑娘原则挑选栖息地
日期:2019-08-07 11:42

(单词翻译:单击)

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This is Scientific American — 60-Second Science. I'm Jason Goldman.
In the jungle, home is anywhere you can raise your babies — while trying not to get gobbled up by somebody else. Take a tiny creature from Brazil whose name is longer than it is: the Bahia's broad-snout casque-headed tree frog. It likes to hang out in the little ponds that form in cavities within bromeliad plants.
These petite pools are technically known as "phytotelmata," from the Greek words for plant and pond. A male finds a bromeliad and attracts a female, who lays her eggs directly into the water. The male stays behind to guard the eggs and tadpoles — spending the rest of his life within that one plant. But not just any bromeliad pool will do.
"It's so crazy that there are some really nice, big bromeliads and I never found our frog there. If I would be a frog, I would like that bromeliad."
Herpetologist Mirco Solé, from Brazil's State University of Santa Cruz, quoting his graduate student, Amanda Lanter-Silva.
"But then we made the research, and we saw that there were tradeoffs."

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In all, Solé and his team surveyed 239 bromeliads within a protected part of Brazil's Atlantic rainforest, of which 74 were occupied by frogs.
The frogs preferred big bromeliads. But the very largest bromeliads were unoccupied by the frogs, which suggests there's a Goldilocks situation. And the researchers think it has to do with the size of the frog's alligator-shaped heads.
If the bromeliad's water tank is too large, then the frog's head can't form a tight seal around the opening. Which would make them and their offspring an easy meal. But if the pool is too small, it might dry out completely.
"So they are really picky concerning their houses. They need a clean house, with fresh water, and it should not be too large, nor too small."
The study is in the journal PLOS ONE.
Solé says that these findings remind us that we need to think about the nuanced habitat needs of a species when it comes to conservation. It's not enough to breed some frogs and release them into the rainforest. We also need to ensure that they're able to find the habitats they need to live, mate and raise their young.
Thanks for listening for Scientific American — 60-Second Science. I'm Jason Goldmann.

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参考译文

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这里是科学美国人——60秒科学P&M+jS=Xe0(a@。我是杰森·古德曼5wUEL%1;pQ5X;)RnLg=,
在丛林里,能抚养孩子的任何地方都是家,不过同时你也要尽量避免被其它动物吃掉25rl[0!uAo+。以巴西一种小型生物为例,这种生物的名字比其身长还长:巴伊亚宽鼻盔头树蛙bt4NH2)y+cw5X~^DM&。它喜欢待在凤梨科植物中小洞注水形成的小水池里9H790.F6;LbXJO
这些小水池学名为“树上水池”,源于希腊语,意为植物和水池y=-4LI*jhlyYUO。雄蛙发现凤梨科植物后会在此吸引雌蛙,雌蛙会直接将卵产在水中DZN0GL)ic(m=i%w。雄蛙留下来保护卵和蝌蚪,并在这株植物中度过余生M-[B.PuN5h!RWY。但并不是每个凤梨水池都有雄蛙-|321.fIZZq3H_x^;s
“有些凤梨又大又好,但我在里面却没找到一只雄蛙,这太不正常了&7fokulU=RiL。如果我是树蛙,我会喜欢那种凤梨2nC*-Ha%!]_d。”
这是巴西圣克鲁斯州立大学的爬虫学家米尔科·索莱引用其研究生阿曼达·莱特-席尔瓦的原话所说+G62dbvqsTexwkkgiOa
“但后来我们做了研究,发现树蛙有自己的权衡考虑tNYeHt2K8qY[z|.aw)l。”
索莱及其团队调查了巴西大西洋雨林一片保护区中的230株凤梨,其中74株被树蛙占领NP&|=XsM73cO
树蛙偏爱大凤梨kGH*QbvZN.k1na.p[upD。但特别大的凤梨却并没有被树蛙占领,这说明其中存在“金发姑娘原则”(刚刚好就是最适合的)Hqko4QH@QA+EctWE*J。研究人员认为这与树蛙鳄状头部的大小有关1p2L*Sm7]~Z-
如果凤梨水池太大,那树蛙的头部就不能形成紧紧锁住凤梨孔的密封盖k^NuoW~QNJZV!F!k。这会使树蛙及其后代轻易成为天敌的盘中餐yUai%I#zW@+Oco。但如果水池太小,又可能完全干涸N^eTiWs9Yf2JR
“所以它们对自己的房子真的很挑剔7.%rq#A%T4-5xl。它们需要一个干净、有清水且不大不小的房子Ts!]V5fa5lDsP。”
这项研究发表在《公共科学图书馆·综合》期刊上;k_8OSXbc%T
索莱说,这些发现提醒我们,在保护生物时,我们需要考虑该物种对栖息地的细致要求mr8*Ev2h)5[。仅仅养一些树蛙然后放到雨林中是不够的fxV[[zdHebKS。我们还要确保它们有能力找到可在其中生存、交配和抚育后代的栖息地j18OrRK.zR[DDxEaV^
谢谢大家收听科学美国人——60秒科学iSa3dNatS8r6]BQ3。我是杰森·古德曼gC+AWJktAOb(7,.bQs[

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译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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重点讲解

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重点讲解:
1. gobble up 狼吞虎咽;贪婪地吃;
The boy gobbled up an ice-cream cone.
那个男孩大口大口地吃完了一个蛋卷冰淇淋f]^h.Y.h_cW_WyOSmWGI
2. stay behind 留下;
He found it unnecessary for us to stay behind.
他感到我们不必要留下来+Ig9]84k+5~0
3. dry out (使)变干;(使)干透;
Environmentalists say that diverting water from the river will lower the water table and dry out wells.
环保主义者称引流河水会导致地下水位下降和水井干枯,]-^FY^4%,sqBE_2iY6
4. when it comes to 谈到;涉及;
They are inexperienced when it comes to decorating.
说到装修,他们就没有什么经验了D3r9GsH+IX1

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重点单词
  • habitatn. (动植物的)产地,栖息地
  • occupiedadj. 已占用的;使用中的;无空闲的 v. 占有(oc
  • pondn. 池塘 v. 筑成池塘
  • releasen. 释放,让渡,发行 vt. 释放,让与,准予发表,发
  • speciesn. (单复同)物种,种类
  • conservationn. 保存,防止流失,守恒,保护自然资源
  • tankn. 坦克,箱,罐,槽,贮水池 vt. 把 ... 储于
  • conen. 圆锥体,锥形物,球果 vt. 变成锥形,削尖
  • unnecessaryadj. 不必要的,多余的
  • gobblevt. 狼吞虎咽 vi. 发出咯咯声 n. 咯咯声