科学美国人60秒:杂食性哺乳类动物河马或能揭开自身感染炭疽病疫情谜团
日期:2016-02-01 16:36

(单词翻译:单击)

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听力文本

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Hippopotamuses.
People usually think of them as massive, lumbering hulks of plant-eating muscle.
Reports do crop up of hippos snacking on crocs or chowing down on a drowned wildebeest.
Those anecdotes are often dismissed as aberrant behaviors—opportunistic protein snacks added to a diet made mostly of salad.
But it turns out that hungry, hungry hippos intentionally seek out the sweet, sweet taste of animal flesh.
“We saw a bunch of wild dogs come and attack an impala, and the impala jumped into the water, tried to swim across the little lake, and the hippo killed it.
Then a few minutes later, that hippo and a bunch of other hippos started eating on that impala.”
University of Alaska research Joseph P. Dudley was in Zimbabwe studying elephants when he saw this scene play out more than 20 years ago.
“About that time, the wild dogs caught and killed another impala right next to the edge of the water hole, and three hippos came out of the water and tried to take away the carcass of the impala, the antelope, from the wild dogs.
As far as I had ever heard, hippos didn't do either of these things.”
We now know that carnivory is actually common among hippos.
And meat-eating could explain what's been a hippo public health mystery:anthrax outbreaks happen naturally among African herbivores, but the pattern of anthrax transmission in hippos has always puzzled researchers.
Could their hankering for meat explain it?
Dudley's latest research suggests that the hippos'could owe their unique susceptibility to anthrax die-offs to their practice of eating meat that carries the infection—including the bodies of other dead hippos.
The study is in the journal Mammal Review.
And that means that humans who come into contact with hippo meat need to take care.
At least 511 Zambians became infected, and five died,
because they handled or consumed hippo meat during a 2011 anthrax outbreak among the amphibious mammals.
That's one advantage of being a vegetarian—for both hippos and humans.

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参考译文
这就是河马QfZb8x_K6N2)
人们通常觉得它们是动作慢吞吞,素食主义为主的大块头E@+2kAj2Wi
但也有关于河马吃下鳄鱼或吞下被淹死羚羊的报道-L4_P;@n*I82
这些报道经常被视为异常行为—人们只是觉得这是河马在自己的素食沙拉中偶尔增加些蛋白质而已Q9JSF2iw._xQ1OtR3m
但试验证明,饥饿难忍的河马会特意去寻找鲜美可口的肉类+[hU(a^Bpk5)_c

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我们亲眼看到一群野狗对一头黑斑羚羊发起攻击,而黑斑羚羊跳入河里试图游过小河时河马却将其杀害F6+#APuW-[N0
几分钟后,这只河马和它的同伴们开始享受这顿盛宴k%%C-PC1au
阿拉斯加大学的研究员约瑟芬·杜德利20年前在津巴布韦研究大象时,亲眼目睹了河马狩猎的这番景象#8p_cBD[&p
那时野狗在湖边将另外一头羚羊杀死后,3只河马想从河里出来从野狗嘴中抢走羚羊的尸体0AhB=G.OC^9y|qR4tC@(
我之前听说河马是素食动物nL[BW8^Z*U3
现在我们了解到河马中的肉食性非常普遍KyZv7B~Z)p][X
而进食肉类可以揭开河马健康的谜团:非洲的食草动物中经常会爆发炭疽病疫情,但是河马中炭疽病疫情的传播途径一直困扰着研究人员G|0.y3#xl4
河马渴望进食肉类能够揭开这个谜团吗?
杜德利最新的研究表明,河马易感染炭疽病疫情是因为它们经常食用包括其他同类尸体在内携带病毒的肉类l4D~#GbIov&x6-HOV+
这项研究已在《哺乳动物评估》杂志上发表tnN(wSGC8F-E0iQ#VH
这表示同河马肉累接触的人员需要引起注意5GQdbl]e==
至少511名赞比亚人被感染,5人死亡&]#|2gcFno*8DjW.#zV2
因为2011年两栖动物中爆发炭疽病疫情时,这些人曾接触或食用河马肉+54KelnTS0vQAH^
而素食主义的人类和河马则能够避免这种疫情QQ2HARRWd6wsdVXV

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译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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重点讲解

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1.think of 认为

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例句:Talk of global women 's rights always makes me think of Mr. banks in the movie Mary Poppins.
全球妇女权利这个话题总让我想起电影《欢乐满人间》(Mary Poppins)中的班克斯先生8]U*|[#)%o.X

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2.turn out 关掉;结果是

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例句:Any responsible government would try to avoid one, but Greece could turn out to be a special case.
任何一个负责任的政府都会尽量避免挤兑的出现,但希腊的状况可能比较特殊;xwGAS%2|I~71~!Hs%#2

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3.jump into 跳到

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例句:First, mortgage rates have remained at or near historic lows, making it attractive for fence-sitters to jump into the market.
首先,住房抵押贷款的利率维持在或者接近历史性低位,吸引观望派跃入市场o7!N5mbQf6rZL

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4.need to 需要

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例句:You can always use opaque glass if you need to block a street view.
如果不想从室内看到街景,可以使用不透明玻璃*(%rq66,3ff

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重点单词
  • intentionallyadv. 有意地,故意地
  • massiveadj. 巨大的,大规模的,大量的,大范围的
  • avoidvt. 避免,逃避
  • mysteryn. 神秘,秘密,奥秘,神秘的人或事物
  • mammaln. 哺乳动物
  • puzzledadj. 困惑的;搞糊涂的;茫然的
  • aberrantadj. 脱离正道的,脱离常轨的,变体的,畸变的
  • amphibiousadj. 具有双重性的,[生物]两栖的
  • infectionn. 传染,影响,传染病
  • globaladj. 全球性的,全世界的,球状的,全局的