VOA建国史话(翻译+字幕+讲解):英国殖民者在新大陆的艰苦生活
日期:2018-11-07 09:11

(单词翻译:单击)

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听力文本

Today, we tell about the first permanent English settlements in North America. England was the first country to compete with Spain for claims in the New World, although it was too weak to do this openly at first. But Queen Elizabeth of England supported such explorations as early as the fifteen seventies. Sir Humphrey Gilbert led the first English settlement efforts. He did not establish any lasting settlement. He died as he was returning to England. Gilbert's half brother Sir Walter Raleigh continued his work. Raleigh sent a number of ships to explore the east coast of North America. He called the land Virginia to honor England's unmarried Queen Elizabeth. In fifteen eighty-five, about one-hundred men settled on Roanoke Island, off the coast of the present day state of North Carolina. These settlers returned to England a year later. Another group went to Roanoke the next year. This group included a number of women and children. But the supply ships Raleigh sent to the colony failed to arrive. When help got there in fifteen-ninety, none of the settlers could be found. History experts still are not sure what happened.
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Some research suggests that at least some of the settlers became part of the Indian tribe that lived in the area. One reason for the delay in getting supplies to Roanoke was the attack of the Spanish Navy against England in fifteen eighty-eight. King Phillip of Spain had decided to invade England. But the small English ships combined with a fierce storm defeated the huge Spanish fleet. As a result, Spain was no longer able to block English exploration. England discovered that supporting colonies so far away was extremely costly. So Queen Elizabeth took no more action to do this. It was not until after her death in sixteen-oh-three that England began serious efforts to start colonies in America. In sixteen-oh-six, the new English King, James the First, gave two business groups permission to establish colonies in Virginia, the area claimed by England. Companies were organized to carry out the move. The London Company sent one hundred settlers to Virginia in sixteen-oh-six. The group landed there in May, sixteen-oh-seven and founded Jamestown. It was the first permanent English colony in the new world. The colony seemed about to fail from the start.

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The settlers did not plant their crops in time so they soon had no food. Their leaders lacked the farming and building skills needed to survive on the land. More than half the settlers died during the first winter. The businessmen controlling the colony from London knew nothing about living in such a wild place. They wanted the settlers to search for gold, and explore local rivers in hopes of finding a way to the East. One settler knew this was wrong. His name was Captain John Smith. He helped the colonists build houses and grow food by learning from the local Indians. Still, the Jamestown settlers continued to die each year from disease, lack of food and Indian attacks. The London Company sent six thousand settlers to Virginia between sixteen-oh-six and sixteen twenty-two. More than four thousand died during that time. History experts say that all the settlers surely would have died without the help of the local Powhatan Indians. The Indians gave the settlers food. They taught them how to live in the forest. And the Powhatan Indians showed the settlers how to plant new crops and how to clear the land for building. The settlers accepted the Indians' help. Then, however, the settlers took whatever else they wanted by force. In sixteen twenty-two, the local Indians attacked the settlers for interfering with Indian land.

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建国史话

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Three hundred forty settlers died. The colonists answered the attack by destroying the Indian tribes living along Virginia's coast. The settlers recognized that they would have to grow their own food and survive on their own without help from England or anyone else. The Jamestown colony was clearly established by sixteen twenty-four. It was even beginning to earn money by growing and selling a new crop, tobacco. The other early English settlements in North America were much to the north of Virginia, in the present state of Massachusetts. The people who settled there left England for different reasons than those who settled in Jamestown. The Virginia settlers were looking for ways to earn money for English businesses. The settlers in Massachusetts were seeking religious freedom. King Henry the Eighth of England had separated from the Roman Catholic Church. His daughter, Queen Elizabeth, established the Protestant religion in England. It was called the Church of England, or the Anglican Church.

The Anglican Church, however, was similar to that of the Roman Catholic Church. Not all Protestants liked this. Some wanted to leave the Anglican Church and form religious groups of their own. In sixteen-oh-six, members of one such group in the town of Scrooby did separate from the Anglican Church. About one hundred twenty-five people left England for Holland. They found problems there too, so they decided to move again...to the New World. These people were called pilgrims, because that is the name given to people who travel for religious purposes. About thirty-five pilgrims were among the passengers on a ship called the Mayflower in sixteen twenty. It left England to go to Virginia. But the Mayflower never reached Virginia. Instead, it landed to the north, on Cape Cod Bay. The group decided to stay there instead of trying to find Jamestown. The pilgrims and the others on the Mayflower saw a need for rules that would help them live together peacefully. They believed they were not under English control since they did not land in Virginia.
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So they wrote a plan of government, called the Mayflower Compact. It was the first such plan ever developed in the New World. They elected a man called William Bradford as the first governor of their Plymouth Colony. We know about the first thirty years of the Plymouth Colony because William Bradford described it in his book, Of Plymouth Plantation. As happened in Jamestown, about half the settlers in Plymouth died the first winter. The survivors were surprised to find an Indian who spoke English. His name was Squanto. He had been kidnapped by an English sea captain and had lived in England before returning to his people. The Pilgrims believed Squanto was sent to them from God. He made it possible for them to communicate with the native people. He showed them the best places to fish, what kind of crops to plant and how to grow them. He provided them with all kinds of information they needed to survive. The settlers invited the Indians to a feast in the month of November to celebrate their successes and to thank Squanto for his help. Americans remember that celebration every year when they observe the Thanksgiving holiday.

Other English settlers began arriving in the area now called New England. One large group was called the Puritans. Like the pilgrims, the Puritans did not agree with the Anglican Church. But they did not want to separate from it. The Puritans wanted to change it to make it more holy. Their desire for this change made them unwelcome in England. The first ship carrying Puritans left England for America in sixteen thirty. By the end of that summer, one thousand Puritans had landed in the northeastern part of the new country. The new English King, Charles, had given permission for them to settle the Massachusetts Bay area. The Puritans began leaving England in large groups. Between sixteen thirty and sixteen forty, twenty thousand sailed for New England. They risked their lives on the dangerous trip. They wanted to live among people who believed as they did, people who honored the rules of the Bible. Puritans believed that the Bible was the word of God. The Puritans and other Europeans, however, found a very different people in the New World. They were America's native Indians. That will be our story next week.
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重点解析

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1.permission for许可,权限
Taking the following as a sample, you can assign the "Read" and "Update" permission for requirement type of 'System User Stories'.
拿接下来的部分做个例子,您可以为“系统用户事例”的需求类型分配“读取”和“更新”许可权4sJ^[0Rf8N&1QN*iP
2.Thanksgiving holiday感恩节假期
Unexpectedly, Beijing refused to allow the Kitty Hawk to stop in Hong Kong, disappointing hundreds of relatives who had flown there to celebrate the U.S. Thanksgiving holiday with crew members.
中国政府出人意料地拒绝让小鹰号停靠香港,让等候在香港的几百名亲属非常失望,他们从美国飞到香港准备和水兵欢度美国的节日感恩节Chp9T(1~Mw@MOM]V
3.settled in落户
He settled in Malaysia.
他定居马来西亚^WXPSli[g8u~8Bdq
4.no longer不再
The order was no longer effective.
这项命令已不再生效*M1jyWv4Uvi3.A
5.separated from 隔离
When you have multiple statements in an SQL script, each statement must be separated from the one that follows by a statement terminator.
如果 SQL 脚本中有多个语句,那么每一个语句都必须用一个语句结束符与前一个语句隔开n+1b%w-ZSF

参考译文

今天,我们为您讲述英国在北美的第一个殖民地M^#3|qed!m3Yh|~,V9y。英国是第一个与西班牙争夺新大陆主权的国家,虽然一开始英国的实力太弱,并没有公开她的野心@mGgYpZhjgV[m+qrf。但早在16世纪70年代,英国女王伊丽莎白就开始支持到美洲的探险活动evHKg(caf|E!EJGmn。汉弗莱•吉尔伯特爵士领导了英国的首次探险活动,他没有建立任何永久的殖民地;X(UW5o*X%4t。在返回的途中去世了ZHD^SQq^.,N5+(。汉弗里•吉尔伯特爵士的同父异母兄弟沃尔特•罗利爵士继续了他的事业sg@IzIId5%T*-&h。罗利爵士派了许多船只到北美大陆的东海岸去探险A6Vqn,nDtt+^(px6。他把这片土地命名为弗吉尼亚,以纪念英国未婚的伊丽莎白女王rtCYa]LQH.P_huMZQ_D。1585年,大约有一百人在罗阿诺克岛——今天的北卡罗莱纳海岸定居(v)zBJhAQq_vwc^J。一年后,这些定居者回到英国q4APhNU8tdl]f0mHCd。第二年,另一组人去了罗阿诺克=i,tG8[EE6bJ。这一组定居者中有妇女还有儿童,但是派往殖民地的补给船罗利号没有到达B%_=6^qGmiCRs7ecs。1590年,当船只到达的时候,却找不到一个人J*52eyA.Cb@M。历史学家仍然不确定发生了什么.lo4X42+AG(ta=]。一些研究表明,至少有一些定居者成为了居住在该地区的印第安部落的一部分@7;NO=]H!yw9m@13R;7w。致使供给船罗利号未能如期到达的原因之一是1588年西班牙海军对英格兰发动进攻BIOXYoD=sXzv5Pg9。西班牙国王菲利普决定入侵英格兰@5)rxTiq)3M6[1Wt。但是,在强暴风雨的助力下,英国的小型船击败了庞大的西班牙舰队Kb+-_bWus^_DSM。结果,西班牙再也无法阻止英国的探险活动Ky=~E5XztlRsMD。英国人发现,向遥远的殖民地供应必需品花费巨大Py;smpkd|qJ(L.。因此伊丽莎白女王停止探险XWYsaNnL+-jLH]k|U[!
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直到1603年伊丽莎白女王去世后,英国才开始开拓美洲殖民地-qcQ(@V[fm。1606年,新英格兰国王詹姆斯一世允允许两个商业组织在弗吉尼亚(英格兰宣称对该地区拥有主权)建立殖民地gMDCKz.Kdux.*[466Y。一些公司组织起来执行这一行动H4v(oXEUokvDQMSI。同年,伦敦公司派遣100名定居者前往维吉尼亚*#vnk3jY,kzu2k&s。1607年5月,这一组织登陆维吉尼亚,成立了詹姆斯敦7|@WV-JK|;DD。这是英国在新大陆的第一个永久殖民地CN17DG!kMi]5,UHrVG.。一开始的时候殖民地的情况非常糟糕.!sKLL!n#v(wR。因为定居者们没有及时播种,所以没过多久,他们便没有了食物(3nHk%x]LT)U*E+2。他们的领导人缺乏在这片土地上生存所需的种植农作物和建筑房屋技能qMN(Jz0(UpOj4iBn。第一个冬天一半以上的人就死了8XU]x&2sMfZN3。在伦敦控制殖民地的商人对这样一个荒凉之地的生活一无所知FfSZ5JbL*u0KT]a。他们希望定居者们寻找黄金,并探索当地的河流,希望找到一条通往东方的道路dAATS68@jk[dJ.sd。有一个定居者知道这是错误的,这个人叫约翰•史密斯上尉+A(k*64~A9。他向当地印第安人学习,帮助定居者们建造房屋和种植粮食~A71A=f8jrZboB#Z0u。尽管如此,每年詹姆斯敦的定居者们仍死于疾病2XBvYp0wjT|B.LPKM6dB。1606年到1622年,伦敦公司派遣了6000名定居者前往维吉尼亚州56A|o-Rj#)&Q,PlsNC9。在此期间,有4000多人死亡X%R6@Z[Y2wR1k92。历史学家认为,如果没有当地印第安人波瓦坦人的帮助,所有的定居者肯定都会死去tK57G1Jlrca!5x];2*x2。印第安人给定居者们食物并且教他们如何在森林里生活K6Fr^BXEO9zPb)[V。波瓦坦印第安人向殖民者展示了如何种植新作物,以及如何清理地面修建房屋M#qUpp9&pjZ^~4Mf|。定居者接受了印第安人的帮助,然而,定居者稳定下来之后使用武力掠夺了他们想要的任何东西6I*u3i9Entmwqrf%E

1622年,当地的印第安人向干涉印第安人土地的定居者发动了进攻xtX7QV8u1CaefHnI6y。340名定居者在斗争中死去;i@K^VI]OrGC(pGA。作为报复,定居者们摧毁居住在弗吉尼亚海岸的印第安部落;so6Y#+Ccg9YQJxkyRV。定居者们意识到,他们必须自己种植食物,自给自足,并且在没有英国或其他国家帮助的情况下生存下来[wAV*@)pgG。1624年,詹姆斯敦殖民地建立od*Ps^Snz3vU|。该殖民地甚至开始通过种植和销售一种新的作物烟草来赚钱Mr+B6,x&eGdnct。北美其它早期的英国殖民地多数在弗吉尼亚的北部(现在的马萨诸塞州)Gk&=(HuMw]5^#x。定居这里的人离开英国的原因与定居在詹姆斯敦的人不同[wDWh(UVm&nj。弗吉尼亚定居者们目的是为英国商人寻找赚钱的途径1@Pn1!eXEs*6_AK%fp&e。马萨诸塞州的定居者则是为了寻求宗教自由tv~|%h(Bkh。英格兰国王亨利八世脱离了罗马天主教会bJw4Tm;.k=y;4zX。他的女儿,伊丽莎白女王,在英国创立了新教YZ(s.G~P^w]nI~NBN-zT。新教被称为英国国教会,或圣公会asGbODt%a|nZ5I*ev~m。然而,英国国教与罗马天主教教会相似6aMjU9a08F52*。并不是所有的新教徒都喜欢英国国教,一些人想离开英国国教,组建自己的宗教团体z-oAlC,hap。1606年,一个组织的成员在斯克洛比镇脱离了英国国教d1%K)Ih8uY|4。大约有125人离开英格兰前往荷兰4b&A.b0kqcL~IMK,pn*6。他们在荷兰也遇到了问题,所以他们决定再次离开……前往新大陆v#6X&v6Ju,。这些人被称为清教徒,因为这个名字是针对那些出于宗教目的而踏上征程的人的h-P9fpZZccX+3.Pm2sl。1620年,大约有35名清教徒乘坐一艘叫做五月花号的船上,“五月花号”离开英国去弗吉尼亚,但是“五月花号”并未到达弗吉尼亚iU2)EzJY^D^85INs
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而是到达北部的鳕鱼岬海湾,船上的人决定留在那里,不再去寻找詹姆斯敦=Y%o4Syz%6Q(。清教徒和其他乘坐“五月花号”的人认为有必要制定规则,帮助他们和平相处yiG@ls+3^]fI6Gs#H8U。他们认为他们不在弗吉尼亚,不受英国管制jnKW-%tz=d(f_o_2~8。因此,他们起草了一份计划,叫做“五月花号”公约v99j7qCro*n-ZHF。这是在新大陆制定的第一个计划*@TrHCByf2o。他们选举了一个叫威廉•布拉德福德的人作为普利茅斯殖民地的第一任长官1]ga7-|z_w^Oy。我们可以从威廉•布拉德福德的书《普利茅斯拓荒记》中了解普利茅斯殖民地的前三十年情况_pd7tL[7N@61RuTQW。正如詹姆斯敦一样,普利茅斯大约一半的定居者在第一个冬天就死了Rgr9BG7dci;jsT。幸存者们惊奇地发现一个会说英语的印度人,他的名字叫斯匡托5IEl-6ul5n9y=ht6,dtT。他被一名英国船长绑架,返程之前曾在英国生活过RY0Xe-(O3sA。清教徒相信斯匡托是上帝派来的XIcNz*nwXx,@b。斯匡托使他们能够与当地人交流+N,i-qK0ZpRZ|N。他向他们展示了最好的钓鱼地点,告诉他们种植什么作物以及如何种植WD9%cHxZsx-。并为他们提供了生存所需的各种信息#5+LW*!)@th

11月,定居者们邀请印第安人和斯匡托参加盛宴,来庆祝他们的成功并感谢斯匡托的帮助%W1GalzpDbygxvJPwrY。美国人每年都会庆祝这个节日,并把这一天称为感恩节i+%z~B[(hWX8TY*1N。其他的英国移民开始到达现在称为新英格兰的地区,一大部分人是清教徒!Y5J9JHlTyb&~。和之前踏上新大陆的前辈一样,这些清教徒不信奉英国国教,但他们不想脱离英国国教[uov@xll^pezgNXO-。他们想要改变英国国教,使它更神圣,这种渴望使他们在英国不受欢迎TFz]+&+i^lxW。1630年,第一艘载着清教徒的船离开英国前往北美%4YS[Pu0S7.p=GaBc.A。1630年夏天结束时,一千名清教徒已经到达新大陆的东北部EpsIla]z8S@(|f)K。新英格兰国王查尔斯允许他们在马萨诸塞湾定居^5L=OamBAc#R。清教徒开始大批离开英国kzp4aIu)wrN5_wt-e7。1630年-1640年,2万名清教徒乘船前往新英格兰GfUkgNPIyItFN。他们冒着生命危险航行AxOFy-,w#os;。他们想要生活在与他们有着相同信仰,尊重圣经规则的人中间E4KU9KKu3#。清教徒相信圣经是上帝的话语pMMgTpWLp=T~I4F7Ez1。然而,清教徒和其他欧洲人发现这这片陆地上还生活着与他们完全不同的人——美洲土著印第安人sbCFm9y;C1D*V~V6h1R。我们下周接着为您讲述a-Jhj6NfB5
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译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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