VOA建国史话(翻译+字幕+讲解):美苏冷战的结束
日期:2018-10-10 16:26

(单词翻译:单击)

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听力文本

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Today, we continue telling about the administration of President George Herbert Walker Bush. He was elected the forty-first president of the United States in nineteen eighty-eight. The Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union ended under the administration of President George Bush. This very tense period had lasted more than forty years. The invention of weapons that could kill millions of people at one time increased worldwide fears during this period. The world was changing greatly however, during the late nineteen eighties. The Soviet Union was dying. On November ninth, nineteen eighty-nine, East Germany opened the Berlin Wall for the first time since it had been built. This wall had divided Communist East Germany from the West since nineteen sixty-one. Citizens and soldiers soon began tearing it down. The fall of the Berlin Wall ended much of the fear and tension between democratic nations and the Soviet Union. Tensions continued to ease as Communist rule in most of the former Soviet countries ended by the early nineteen nineties. Fifteen republics had belonged to the Soviet Union. By the end of nineteen ninety-one, most had declared their independence.

President Bush recognized all the former Soviet republics. They became a very loosely formed coalition called the Commonwealth of Independent States. Countries that had considered the United States the enemy, now looked to it to lead the way to peace. As the Soviet Union was dying, President Bush repeatedly negotiated with Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev. In the spring of nineteen ninety, for example, their meeting in the United States resulted in an important agreement. It called for each side to destroy most of its chemical weapons. The two men also agreed to improve trade and economic relations. The American and Soviet presidents met in July, nineteen ninety-one, in Moscow. There, the two leaders signed the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, called START ONE. This treaty called for both the Soviet Union and the United States to reduce their supply of long-range nuclear bombs and missiles. Each promised to decrease its supply by about one-third over seven years. START ONE became the first agreement between the two powers that ordered cuts in supplies of existing nuclear weapons. In September nineteen ninety-one, President Bush said the United States would remove most of its short-range nuclear weapons from service. He also said the United States would destroy many of these weapons. The next month, the Soviet nations announced the same actions. On December twenty-fifth, Mikhail Gorbachev officially resigned as Soviet president.
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The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ended. As president of Russia, Boris Yeltsin became the most important leader of the former Soviet Republics. President Bush and President Yeltsin signed another arms treaty in January, nineteen ninety-three. This START TWO agreement provided for reducing long-range nuclear weapons to half the number planned for START ONE. Cuts were to be made over seven years. George Bush ordered American forces into battle two times during his administration. These conflicts were not linked to disputes with Communist governments. In December nineteen eighty-nine, he sent troops to Panama. The goal was to oust the dictator, General Manuel Antonio Noriega. Noriega had refused to honor election results that showed another candidate had been elected president of Panama. The United States also wanted Noriega on illegal drug charges. In addition, President Bush said he sent troops in to protect thirty five-thousand Americans living in the Central American nation. American soldiers easily defeated Noriega's forces. He was taken to the United States for trial. The United States then supported the presidency of Guillermo Endara, who had officially won the presidential election in Panama. In August nineteen ninety, Iraq invaded Kuwait.

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建国史话

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The United States and other nations were receiving much of their oil from Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. The United Nations declared a resolution clearly threatening war on Iraq unless it withdrew from Kuwait by January fifteenth, nineteen ninety-one. But Iraq failed to obey. President Bush succeeded in forming a coalition with thirty-eight other countries against Iraq. The coalition wanted to free Kuwait and protect Saudi Arabia from invasion by Iraq. President Bush sent hundreds of thousands of American troops into the effort. The Persian Gulf War began in Iraq on January seventeenth, nineteen ninety-one. At first, the coalition bombed Iraqi targets in Iraq and Kuwait. The bombing destroyed or damaged many important centers. On February twenty-sixth, Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein ordered his troops to leave Kuwait. The order came too late. The Iraqis were surrounded. Major ground attacks on Iraq and Kuwait defeated Saddam Hussein's forces in a little more than four days. Only about three hundred-seventy coalition troops died in the Persian Gulf War. Some military experts say as many as one hundred-thousand Iraqi fighters may have been killed in the fighting.

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Others say far fewer Iraqi soldiers died. However, thousands of civilians were thought to have died in Iraq and Kuwait. Kuwait suffered severe damage. But it was free. After the war Saddam Hussein still controlled his country. Years later, some Americans continued to criticize the Bush Administration for not trying to oust the Iraqi leader. They believed President Bush should have urged that coalition forces try to capture the Iraqi capital, Baghdad. After the war ended, Kurdish people in northern Iraq fought to oust the Iraqi leader. So did Shi-ite Muslims in southern Iraq. These groups suffered crushing defeat. The defeated Kurds fled to Iran, Turkey, and the northern Iraqi mountains. Thousands of Kurds died or suffered from war injuries, disease, and starvation. In April, President Bush ordered American troops to work with other coalition nations to give humanitarian aid to the refugees. The troops established refugee camps for the Kurds. As time passed, Iraqi soldiers and aircraft continued to attack Kurds in the north and Shi-ite Muslims in the south. Coalition forces led by the United States established safety areas in northern and southern Iraq. Years later, these "no fly" areas still restricted Iraqi military air activity. President Bush also ordered American military troops to join other troops in Somalia.

By late nineteen ninety-two, lack of rain and continuing civil war had caused widespread suffering there. Opposing armed ethnic groups were keeping Somalis from receiving food and other aid supplies. American soldiers helped in the effort to get aid to the starving people. The North American Free Trade Agreement, NAFTA, was signed in late nineteen ninety-two. It called for the United States and Mexico to remove taxes and other trade barriers. Mexico and Canada agreed to take similar action. NAFTA became effective in nineteen ninety-four, after George Bush had left office. Some people feared that NAFTA would hurt millions of workers. Others praised President Bush for supporting the agreement. By the third year of his four-year term, President Bush's international activities had made him an extremely popular president. It seemed he would be easily re-elected in nineteen ninety two. Historians often say, however, that political situations can change quickly. That is what happened to America's forty-first president. Economic problems and other issues inside the United States began to seriously damage the great popularity of George Herbert Walker Bush.
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重点解析

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1.called for呼吁
I called for the draft agreement you sent us one week ago.
我打电话是关于你一周前寄来的那份协议草案)D|i51g&QA
2.illegal drug非法药物
Finally, their product was seized by the FDA and taken off the shelf for being an illegal drug.
最后,他们的产品以非法药物的名义被美国食品及药物管理局要求撤下货架,并没收|+Za=GPUm^YB9RABLjx
3.resulted in导致
The boom in building has resulted in the local land being more valuable now for houses.
营造业的兴旺导致了目前当地房屋建筑土地价格上涨_lipu+Pn2.
4.trade barriers贸易壁垒
Li said such a trade barrier would be a "disaster".
李高称这样的贸易壁垒将是一场“灾难”uuW,Y1t[&8P
5.civil war 内战
The clergymen of the Christian Church were often rabbled in the civil war.
内战期间基督教教士常常受到袭击T*s_kd|Fi26p[jJe%c

参考译文

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今天,我们继续为您讲述乔治·赫伯特·沃克·布什执政的故事rbGk2XFdDn=r-#%Yq。1988年,乔治·赫伯特·沃克·布什担任美国第41任总统-hQc;U!Z^em。美国和苏联之间的冷战在布什总统执政期间结束i|i^_rZS.C6x。美苏冷战持续了四十多年JWZx#,q7U5。在这段时间里,能够同时杀死数百万人武器的发明使全世界人民惊恐万分p^*GJ@e_9IhGxF。然而,20世纪80年代末,世界发生了巨大的变化,苏联正在走向解体a,8x55TdG|%t^h*PTC。1989年11月9日,东德首次开放了柏林墙,这是自柏林墙建成以来的首次开放]rlb%yLo%)sbh~。自1961年起,柏林墙就将共产主义东德和西德分隔开来bCR;(68Vp52p+]G~Tz)。市民和士兵很快就开始拆除它^ZlqyX7xs2f。柏林墙的倒塌结束了民主国家和苏联之间的恐惧紧张关系,s0h5#H@0&(%+4RAfd。随着90年代初共产主义统治在大多数前苏联国家的结束,紧张局势持续缓和_cj.-v#&X4S0d。有十五个共和国属于苏联,到1991年底,大多数已经宣布独立p=Q.y[ktP#FS-。布什总统承认所有前苏联共和国SW]BHlbe+-2x%_sk|.。这些前苏联共和国国家组成一个松散的联盟——独立国家联合体aFeTk5xG)QW5ICtRGD。那些曾经视美国为敌人的国家,现在却希望美国能引领和平之路1BU8KJLz]s。随着苏联解体,布什总统多次与苏联领导人戈尔巴乔夫进行谈判snfA+_!4=XN&。例如,1990年春天,两国领导人在美国的会面达成了一项重要协议M%&DKnOf5AIeYL。协议呼吁双方销毁大部分化学武器,他们还同意改善经贸关系(%e&&NgHmdN1_S

1991年7月,美国和苏联总统在莫斯科会面01srOX=agd。两位领导人在莫斯科签署了《削减战略武器条约I》*W!2q=hiIRk。条约要求苏联和美国减少远程核弹和导弹的供应Zi9a-MJ))-p#|M2l。两家公司都承诺在七年内减少三分之一的供应量]gZtp!2cyq-pwTr,v4b。《削减战略武器条约I》成为两个大国之间要求削减现有核武器的供应的第一份协议wv5ca67GALa+@r8XvqH,。1991年9月,布什总统声称美国将停止使用大部分短程核武器@yqUA;HpFg4_f。他还表示,美国将销毁许多武器J;!,_Z_qgs。第二个月,苏联国家宣布了同样的行动;V**FhV,@F6f]M。12月25日,戈尔巴乔夫正式辞去总统职务V|sE5|p9T=52Z!eC]。苏维埃社会主义共和国联盟停止存在0K72&^5%@.&M]JMXkCs。俄罗斯总统——鲍里斯·叶利钦成为前苏联共和国最重要的领导人0O*6]PeL%zn-!n2rrF|。1993年1月,布什总统和叶利钦总统签署了另一项武器条约a%LYUC|C73Uak=99y]H。《削减战略武器条约 II》规定,将远程核武器数量削减至《削减战略武器条约I》计划数量的一半Q|V