Today, we tell the story about the presidential election of nineteen eighty-eight. America's fortieth president, Ronald Reagan, was one of the most popular. During his eight years in office, many Americans did well financially. Many felt more secure about the future of the nation and the world. The threat of nuclear war did not seem so strong or frightening. American law does not permit presidents to serve more than two terms. So, in nineteen eighty-eight, the country prepared to elect a new one. There were three main candidates for the Republican Party nomination. They were George Bush, Robert Dole, and Pat Robertson. Bush had just served eight years as vice-president. Dole was the top Republican in the Senate. Robertson was a very conservative Christian who had a nation-wide television program. George Bush gained from Ronald Reagan's popularity. Reagan's successes were seen as Bush's successes, too. Neither Robert Dole nor Pat Robertson won enough votes in local primary elections to threaten Bush. He was nominated on the first vote at the party convention.
The delegates accepted his choice for vice president, Senator Dan Quayle of Indiana. Eight candidates competed for the Democratic Party's nomination. One was Michael Dukakis. He was governor of Massachusetts. Another was Jesse Jackson. He was a Protestant clergyman and a long-time human rights activist. He had competed for the nomination four years earlier. In nineteen eighty-eight, Jesse Jackson received about twenty-five percent of the votes in local primary elections. But he did not win his party's nomination. Delegates at the convention chose Governor Dukakis, instead. For vice president, they chose Senator Lloyd Bentsen of Texas. For a time after the party conventions, public opinion studies showed that a majority of Americans would vote for Dukakis. Then, however, Dukakis began to lose popularity. Political observers said he campaigned too long in his home area before starting the national campaign. Dukakis also suffered from criticism from George Bush. Bush attacked his record as governor. He said Dukakis had not been severe enough with criminals. He said Dukakis would weaken America's military power and he accused Dukakis of not protecting the environment. Governor Dukakis made charges of his own. He accused Bush of not telling the truth about his part in what was called the Iran-Contra case.
He said Bush knew that the government had sold weapons to Iran in exchange for Iran's support in winning the release of American hostages in Lebanon. And he said Bush knew that the money received for the weapons was being used illegally to aid Contra rebels in Nicaragua. He also criticized Bush for being part of an administration that reduced social services to poor people and old people. Television played a large part in the campaign of nineteen eighty-eight. Each candidate made a number of short television films. Some of these political advertisements were strong, bitter attacks on the other candidate. Sometimes it seemed the candidates spent as much time on negative campaign advertisements as they did on advertisements that made themselves look good. In the end, Bush's campaign was more effective. He succeeded in making Dukakis look weak on crime and military issues. He succeeded in making himself look stronger and more decisive. On Election Day in November, Bush defeated Dukakis by almost seven million popular votes. George Bush was sworn-in on January twentieth, nineteen eighty-nine. In his inaugural speech he said: BUSH: "No president, no government can teach us to remember what is best in what we are.
But if the man you have chosen to lead this government can help make a difference, if he can celebrate the quieter, deeper successes that are made -- not of gold and silk, but of better hearts and finer souls -- if he can do these things, then he must ... We as a people have such a purpose today. It is to make kinder the face of the nation and gentler the face of the world. My friends, we have work to do."George Bush had led a life that prepared him for public service and leadership. His father had served as a United States senator. When America entered World War Two, George decided to join the Navy. He became a pilot of bomber planes. He was just eighteen years old -- at that time the youngest pilot the Navy ever had. He fought against the Japanese in the Pacific battle area. He completed many dangerous bombing raids. He was shot down once and was rescued by an American submarine. George came home from the war as a hero. He became a university student and got married. He and his wife, Barbara, then moved to Texas where he worked in the oil business. He ran for the United States Senate in nineteen sixty-four, and lost. Two years later, he was elected to the House of Representatives. He ran for the Senate again in nineteen seventy, and lost again.
But by that time, he had gained recognition. Over the next eight years, he was appointed to a series of government positions. He was ambassador to the United Nations. He was chairman of the Republican National Committee. He was America's representative in China before the two countries had diplomatic relations. And he was head of the Central Intelligence Agency. In nineteen eighty, Bush competed against Ronald Reagan for the Republican nomination for president. He lost. But the party chose him to be its vice presidential candidate. Bush gained more power in the position than many earlier vice presidents. After two terms, he felt ready to lead the nation. The new president took seven foreign trips during his first year in office. Observers said his visit to Europe in the spring was especially successful. President Bush met with the leaders of the other countries in NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. He proposed a major agreement on reducing troops and non-nuclear weapons in Europe. The Soviet Union called this proposal a serious and important step in the right direction. In June, the government of China crushed pro-democracy demonstrations in Beijing. President Bush ordered some restrictions against China to protest the situation. Many critics, however, felt that this action was not strong enough. Unlike in China, communist governments in central and eastern Europe were not able to prevent the coming of democracy.
Since nineteen eighty-seven, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev had permitted members of the Warsaw Alliance to experiment with political and economic reforms. Reforms were not enough, however. One after the other, these countries rejected communism. Communist governments were removed from office in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Romania. In the middle of the summer, President Bush visited Hungary and Poland. Both nations were trying to reform their economies. Both were suffering from severe problems as they changed from a centrally controlled economy to an economy controlled by free market forces. President Bush promised America's advice and financial help. For almost fifty years, the United States had led the struggle against communism around the world. Now, many of its former enemies needed help. In the autumn of nineteen eighty-nine, there was a dramatic expression of the changes taking place in the world. On November ninth, East Germany opened the wall that had divided it from the West since nineteen sixty-one. Within days, citizens and soldiers began tearing it down. The fall of the Berlin Wall ended almost fifty years of fear and tension between democratic nations and the Soviet Union. All over the world, people renewed their hopes and dreams of living in peace. And former enemies looked to the United States to lead the way.
1.make a difference 有影响，有关系
Efficacy - people want to make a difference and have some control over their environment. Without that, the meaning of life is reduced.
2.played a large part in 起了很大作用
Advertising has played a large part in the growth of tourism,when hotels and travel agencies began to advertise the attractions of different tourist areas
3.military power 军权；兵权
We also know that military power alone is not going to solve the problems in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
4.prepared for 为…做好准备
They prepared for their wedding.
5.struggle against 与…作斗争，和…斗争
He has also since garnered more information about her desperate struggle against her abduction.
6.competed for 争夺
The top 100 vote getters got $25K each, then competed for the $1 million grand prize, with 2nd-6th place getting $100K each.
民主党全国代表大会后的民意调查显示，大多数美国人会把票投给杜卡基斯。然而，后来杜卡基斯的支持率开始下滑 。政治观察人士说，杜卡基斯在全国范围内开展的竞选活动起步太晚了 。杜卡基斯还受到了布什总统的批评 。布什抨击了他作为州长的政绩 。他说，杜卡基斯对罪犯过于心慈手软，杜卡基斯会削弱美国的军事力量，他指责杜卡基斯没有为保护环境做出努力 。杜卡基斯州长提出了指控 。他指责布什在所谓的伊朗门事件中没有说实话 。他说，布什知道政府向伊朗出售武器，以换取伊朗支持释放在黎巴嫩的美国人质 。他还说，布什知道用于购买武器的钱被非法用于援助尼加拉瓜的反政府武装 。他还批评布什政府减少对穷人和老人的社会服务 。电视在1988年的竞选中起了很大的作用 。每个候选人都制作了一些电视短片 。这些政治广告中有一些是对另一位候选人的强烈而尖锐的攻击 。有时，候选人似乎在负面竞选广告和正面竞选广告上花的时间一样多最终，布什的竞选更加有成效 。他成功地让杜卡基斯在犯罪和军事问题上显得软弱无力 。他成功地使自己看起来更坚强、更果断 。11月的选举日，布什以将近700万张选票击败了杜卡基斯 。
1970年，他再次竞选参议员，又一次落选。但通过竞选极大地增加了知名度 。在接下来的八年里，布什担任过不少政界要职 。包括驻联合国大使，共和党全国委员会主席 。中美两国建交前的美国驻华代表 。还曾担任中央情报局局长 。1980年，布什与罗纳德·里根竞争共和党总统候选人提名 。结果输了，但该党选择他作为副总统候选人 。布什在这个职位上获得的权力比许多前副总统都大 。八年过后，布什觉得自己已经做好了当总统的准备 。新总统在上任的第一年七次出国访问 。观察人士说，他今年春天对欧洲的访问尤其成功 。布什总统会见了北大西洋公约组织的领导人，提出了在欧洲削减军队和无核武器的重要提议 。苏联称这一建议是朝着正确方向迈出的认真而重要的一步 。6月，中国政府在北京镇压了民主示威活动 。布什总统下令对中国采取制裁行动 。然而，许多批评人士认为，制裁行动不够强硬 。与中国不同，中欧和东欧的共产主义政府未能阻止民主的到来 。