VOA美国人物志(翻译+字幕+讲解):几位医疗界英雄的故事
日期:2013-04-10 11:11

(单词翻译:单击)

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听力文本

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This is Science in the News. I'm Shirley Griffith. And I'm Christopher Cruise. Today, we tell the stories of some medical heroes.

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At the start of the 20th century, the United States Army had a Yellow Fever Commission. The Army wanted medical experts to study yellow fever and find a way to stop the disease. One team went to Cuba to test the idea that mosquitoes spread yellow fever. The team was led by Walter Reed, the Army doctor and scientist noted for his work on infectious diseases.
In August of 1900, the researchers began to raise mosquitoes and infect them with the virus. Nine of the Americans let the infected insects bite them. Nothing happened. Then, two more let the mosquitoes bite them. Both men developed yellow fever.

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Dr. Jesse William Lazear
A doctor named Jesse William Lazear recognized that the mosquitoes that bit the last two men had been older than the others. Dr. Lazear proved that mosquitoes did carry yellow fever.
Dr. Lazear himself was also bitten. No one is sure how it happened. He said it happened accidentally as he treated others. But some people said he placed the mosquito on his arm as part of the experiment. Medical historians say he may have reported the bite as an accident so his family would not be denied money from his life insurance policy.
Jesse Lazear died of yellow fever. His death shocked the others on the team in Cuba. But they continued their work.

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More people let themselves be bitten by mosquitoes. Others were injected with blood from the victims of yellow fever. Some people in this test group developed the disease, but all recovered to full health.

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Members of the team praised the work by Jesse Lazear. They called it a sacrifice to research that led the way to one of the greatest medical discoveries of the century.
The research answered the question of how yellow fever was spread. Now the question was how to protect people. The researchers had a theory. They thought that people who were bitten by infected mosquitoes -- but recovered -- were protected in the future.

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Nurse Clara Maass
To test this idea, the team in Cuba offered $100 to anyone who would agree to be bitten by infected mosquitoes. Nineteen people agreed. The only American was Clara Maass. She was a nurse who worked with yellow fever patients in Cuba.
Clara Maass was bitten by infected mosquitoes seven times between March and August of 1901. Only one of the nineteen people developed the disease -- until that August. Then seven people got yellow fever. Clara Maass died six days after she was bitten for the seventh time.
The experiment showed that the bite of an infected mosquito was not a safe way to protect people from yellow fever. Medical historians say the death of Clara Maass also created a public protest over the use of humans in yellow fever research. Such experiments ended.
Cuba and the United States both honored Clara Maass on postage stamps. And today a hospital in her home state of New Jersey is known as the Clara Maass Medical Center.

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Dr. Joseph Goldberger
Joseph Goldberger was a doctor for the United States Public Health Service. In 1912, he began to study a skin disease that was killing thousands of people in the South. The disease was pellagra.

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Dr. Goldberger traveled to the state of Mississippi where many people suffered from pellagra. He studied the victims and their families. Most of the people were poor. The doctor came to believe that the disease was not infectious, but instead related to diet.
He received permission from the state governor to test this idea at a prison. Prisoners were offered pardons if they took part. One group of prisoners received their usual foods -- mostly corn products. A second group ate meat, fresh vegetables and milk.
Members of the first group developed pellagra. The second group did not.
But some medical researchers refused to accept that a poor diet caused pellagra. For the South, pellagra was more than simply a medical problem -- there were other issues involved, including Southern pride.

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So Dr. Goldberger had himself injected with blood from a person with pellagra. He also took liquid from the nose and throat of a pellagra patient and put them into his own nose and throat. He even swallowed pills that contained skin from pellagra patients.

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An assistant also took part in the experiments. So did Dr. Goldberger's wife. None of them got sick. Later, the doctor discovered that a small amount of dried brewer's yeast each day could prevent pellagra.

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几位医疗界英雄的故事
Joseph Goldberger died of cancer in 1929. He was 55 years old. Several years later, researchers discovered the exact cause of pellagra -- a lack of the B vitamin known as niacin.

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Matthew Lukwiya
Matthew Lukwiya was the medical administrator of Saint Mary's Hospital in the Gulu District of northern Uganda. In 2000, the hospital was the center of treatment for an outbreak of Ebola. The virus causes severe bleeding. No cure is known. Doctors can only hope that victims are strong enough to survive.

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Dr. Lukwiya acted quickly to control the spread of infection. He kept the people with Ebola separate from the other patients. He ordered hospital workers to wear protective clothing and follow other safety measures.

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One day he had to deal with a patient who was dying of Ebola. The man had been acting out of control. The doctor knew him well. The patient was a nurse who worked at the hospital. The man was coughing and bleeding. Dr. Lukwiya violated one of his own rules -- he wore no protection over his eyes.

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Matthew Lukwiya died from the virus in December of 2000. He was only 42 years old. Ugandans mourned his death. He was an important influence in the community. Experts say his work during the outbreak helped stop the Ebola virus from spreading out of control.
Dr. Carlo Urbani

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On February 28, 2003, the Vietnam-France Hospital in Hanoi asked Carlo Urbani for help. The Italian doctor was an expert on communicable diseases. He was based in Vietnam for the World Health Organization.

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The hospital asked Dr. Urbani to help identify an unusual infection. He recognized it as a new threat. He made sure other hospitals increased their infection-control measures.
On March 11th, Dr. Urbani developed signs of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Four days later, the World Health Organization declared it a worldwide health threat.
Carlo Urbani was the first doctor to warn the world of the disease that became known as SARS. He died of it on March 29, 2003. He was 46 years old.

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Molecular Biologist Anita Roberts
Our final medical hero is an American: molecular biologist Anita Roberts. She was widely recognized by other researchers for her work with a protein called "transforming growth factor-beta." TGF-beta can both heal wounds and make healthy cells cancerous.

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In 1976, Anita Roberts joined the National Cancer Institute, part of the National Institutes of Health. She worked for many years with another researcher -- Michael Sporn.
They found that TGF-beta helps to heal wounds and is important in the body’s defense system against disease. At the same time, though, the two scientists found that the protein can also support the growth of cancer in some cells.

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Between 1983 and 2002, Anita Roberts published more than 340 research papers. Many other scientists gave credit to her published work. In fact, the publication Science Watch listed her as the 49th most-cited researcher in the world during that 20-year period. She was the third most-cited female scientist.

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But in 2004, after years of studying cancer, Anita Roberts learned that she herself had the disease. She died of gastric cancer in May of 2006. She was 64 years old.

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重点解析

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1.spread 传播

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The industrial revolution, which started a couple of hundred years ago in Europe, is now spreading across the world.
几百年前始于欧洲的工业革命现在正向全世界扩散8)^~2f]yzTY,&h

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2.bite 叮;咬

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Every year in this country more than 50,000 children are bitten by dogs.
每年这个国家有五万多个孩子被狗咬伤!#.oean8En1#pD7PL

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3.life insurance 人寿保险

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I have also taken out a life insurance policy on him just in case.
我也给他买了一份人寿保险以防万一,R48SlMVi33ULaZ@y

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4.Others were injected with blood from the victims of yellow fever.

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inject 注射

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His son was injected with strong drugs.
他的儿子被注射了强效的药|PQl@EZF98kykw

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5.They called it a sacrifice to research that led the way to one of the greatest medical discoveries of the century.

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sacrifice牺牲

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She sacrificed family life to her career.
她为了她的事业牺牲了家庭生活7IAC0S-V94RNV9AB

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6.The experiment showed that the bite of an infected mosquito was not a safe way to protect people from yellow fever.

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protectfrom 使免受

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Wild wood should be well protect from excessive hag.
野生森林应该被保护以免过量砍伐F]DQDq7b6mo#Hk51^O

参考译文

这里是《科学新闻》3kQ*.fClXa0u。我是雪莉·格里菲斯&aAI[d6Ys-@s--LsuDH8。我是克里斯托弗·克鲁斯85ZIfU2J)0e[^。今天我们要讲一些医疗英雄的故事*TfAu=iyds-[6

20世纪初,美国陆军中有一个黄热病委员会bu_ouuD6ae|EOn5B。军队希望医疗专家研究黄热病并找到治疗方法7_|tKd%Q5_aHwcQ.~Q。一个团队来到古巴测试蚊子传播黄热病的想法oFpS[dCD294o+^SixEj!。团队由瓦尔特·里德带领,他是一名军医也是一名科学家,因其对传染病的研究而出名YY1@gP&~);FH&u9sm.BH。1900年8月,研究人员开始培育蚊子并让它们感染病毒V4U&Jw*+!K5Ru8I。9名美国人让这些受感染的虫子叮咬自己Jiu69JBu(8。什么事也没发生kDYt3MlRGJ@1e;*u0。然后,又有两个人让蚊子叮咬他们=xk.#9^!cn。两个人都感染了黄热病.jq2A8I_ouWBd0-n4d

赫塞·威廉·拉泽尔医生
赫塞·威廉·拉泽尔医生确认叮咬最后两个人的蚊子比其他的蚊子更大QDH@+7DD^mU;A2。拉泽尔医生证实蚊子确实携带黄热病1Q_S(1D~4w。拉泽尔医生也被咬了GE_m,d(4e)Z-8p。没人确定这是怎么发生的x2moh_XtA2[*~U7i=Gt。他说是在他治疗其他人的时候不小心咬到的=TRNGRO8~qT-F。但是一些人说他把自己当成试验品,将蚊子放在自己的胳膊上X2]e!Jb0;P)qK.。医学史学家说他或许将叮咬上报成是意外,这样他的家人就能够得到人寿保险的赔款7+NwFs^nb~|~%;bzwR。赫塞·拉泽尔死于黄热病v5Y~QqlfFZG_NGxn;S;。他的死震惊古巴团队的其他人,但是他们仍继续自己的工作ig(3d8&@Nbb]6UAT。越来越多的人让自己被蚊子叮咬yS2z-iqIO%。其他人则注射黄热病人的血液5iEp!%fNkNho-66Pt。测试团队中的一些人染病,但他们全部都恢复了健康3dcM[nz@l~p。团队成员称赞了赫塞·拉泽尔的工作)~7ffn[v*VpUrm[。他们称这是为了研究而牺牲自己,正是这种牺牲带领大家通往本世纪最伟大医疗发现之一9vSn+i8yw@。研究回答了黄热病如何传播的问题9F_b%d9EBPd2T。现在的问题是如何保护大家+VMTCCpT6D4%3P+C1。研究人员有了一种理论L7L@z2;~^QTi+AM~D2@f。他们认为被感染蚊子叮咬的人—但仍未康复—应受到保护2lnbR_6Eb5j^x~I#
克拉拉·马斯护士
为了测试这一想法,古巴的团队为同意被感染蚊子叮咬的人提供一百美元ly1rW3VBR]wAp0+。有19个人同意了jOkYqg+jW4t。其中唯一一个美国人是克拉拉·马斯MiTOJ.P0sG3;。她是在古巴和黄热病病人一同工作的护士Hrnj&%!(2=L+vAtyq。在1901年3月到8月期间,克拉拉·马斯被感染蚊子叮咬了7次zwfk-77gR#pr;3ad。19个人中只有一个感染疾病—直到8月=AdJU9V.EFU。有7个人都得了黄热病l5[uNpb=Wle+xHAlGeR。克拉拉·马斯在被叮咬第7次的六天后死亡.Pm#=D]9;=R..jAK&2q[。试验表明感染蚊子的叮咬并不是保护人们远离黄热病的安全方法f(cX)Lu!gE=4I&PD%^mD。医学史学家说克拉·马斯的死也建立了在黄热病研究中,对人类试验的保护#Q2+x**kj!0HF)zHu。此类试验被终止了3YnF=_,;&!Tema|Hw。古巴和美国都出版邮票纪念克拉拉·马斯*pMETy+,m[s。如今克拉拉·马斯家乡新泽西州有一家叫做克拉拉马斯医疗中心的医院[icwHxX|hEd8

约瑟夫·古德伯格医生
约瑟夫·古德伯格是美国公共卫生局的一名医生~~qtg*5UsaZ)v-mh。1912年,他开始研究一种致南部数千人死亡的皮肤病——糙皮病DkI.V~PUGDCUp。古德伯格医生来到密西西比州,这里多人感染糙皮病DjG%U+YY%QUJB5n。他对患者和患者家人进行研究mx,viQ)E]SQ!。他们多数人都很贫穷%!#samP;@9。医生逐步认为这种疾病是不传染的,但是却和饮食有关;bT.CK^Es-c;eP。州长允许他在一间监狱里进行测试mJ+KU@)V!.g+uVQ。参与试验的犯人们将被赦免d&6QRs^24e!C(7ff。犯人中的一组人吃的是平常的食物—大多是玉米食品Xs-KXV)maIDfX0Qp.=。第二组吃的是肉、新鲜蔬菜和牛奶T+K,SCbHA.u2^
第一组成员染上了糙皮病,第二组却没有7FrB_!ewFeWrQd
但一些医疗研究员拒接接受是饮食引起糙皮病的说法-LCXClHk#I。在南部,糙皮病不仅是简单的医疗问题—其中还涉及到了其他的问题,包括南方人的自尊心Rx;&9PKjx-*。所以古德伯格医生给自己注射了糙皮病病人的血液vrWschw&!33h1Re。他还将从糙皮病病人鼻子和嗓子中提取的液体放进自己的鼻子和嗓子里YRXf-hKaBc。他甚至吞下了含有糙皮病病人皮肤的药片i~FU*^w8FhAu,TN。一位助手也参与了试验,还有古德伯格医生的妻子UiGuZ6z~#nUJ4VZ-W。他们都没有染病;uhC+%pcIsId&biSJTn。之后,医生发现每天服用少量啤酒酵母能够预防糙皮病B,ggJ6uV799!。1929年,55岁的约瑟夫·古德伯格死于癌症PWqeuNZv&eN&rp0。几年后,研究人员发现糙皮病的准确起因—缺乏维生素B,也就是烟酸U9h+1#Z]5JuVM,2P

马修·卢克威亚
马修·卢克威亚是乌干达北部古卢地区圣玛丽医院的医药行政人员5wpGrrndaxQEM)4^m7=X。2000年,该医院是治疗埃博拉病毒的中心EihVO8i5VxP。该病毒会引起严重出血且无药可医!ynSX;Bt2c7)%CkG_。医生们只能希望患者们足够坚强得以存活q;KD3MxPbgzgXLGB。卢克威亚医生为控制感染传播迅速做出行动[pKLA+g(8p。他将埃博拉患者和其他病人分隔开_h#Tk0M,%Q。他命令医院工作人员穿着防护衣,同时采取其他安全措施LXBt^7G!qmy1LhROI[
一次他不得不处理一名埃博拉患者nfJx[dlPZzN_N。这个人已经失控V2eCr^T@;[j。医生认识他#)P@C;e]V@sYuUY1ib7w。这个病人是医院里的护士h8Z[JzKl5,4KRHFjq;BR。病人咳嗽还出血v5[P#iqYku]J&V=tj。卢克威亚医生违反了他自己的规定—他的眼部未佩戴防护装置M^YKHj+b61eM。2000年12月,马修·卢克威亚死于该病毒,年仅42岁dhSw-V4oWi=]VUY。乌干达人为他哀悼LssTmIVDEA4b~&y。他对这个群体有着重要影响力&04~mX%p#b。专家表示他在埃博拉爆发期间的工作帮助阻止埃博拉病毒失控&CCVfg4nIQ=..-ZF_CFF

卡洛·乌尔巴尼医生
2003年2月28日,河内越南法国医院寻求卡洛·乌尔巴尼的帮助3uIaAXosrf。这名意大利医生是传染病专家#&E%T[QtBo。他是WHO驻扎越南的医生xy~GS9foZ#。医院让乌尔巴尼医生帮助鉴定一种不常见的传染病pA+x5TbsK.d_RXj-B。他确认这是一种新威胁1@Fq]%EQXa*HNHo-)o。他确保其他医院提高了他们的感染控制措施GhFGfK,qF|n[@3%z。3月11日,乌尔巴尼医生出现了严重的急性呼吸道症状sLzv8QqNx!W7=u!。四天后,WHO宣布这是一起全球范围内的健康威胁]0pb;EBLXLroSiIcBi。卡洛·乌尔巴尼是第一位警告世界这种疾病的医生,这种疾病即非典型肺炎@!kx9,u,[z6。他死于2003年3月29日,年仅46岁[kfkcL4F*f6hpq44

我们最后一个医疗英雄是一个美国人:分子生物学家安妮塔·罗伯茨XKrTOOsO]-Ik[;xOdrT。她因研究蛋白质—转化生长因子-β而为研究人员所知]vCI%U1TWyVMv5;。转化生长因子-β能够治愈伤口并使健康细胞癌化@M]0BV[,a&tcn[-sU。1976年,安妮塔·罗伯茨加入卫生研究院,国家癌症研究所(u@3hb@T!!F%]J。她和另一名研究人员迈克尔·斯波恩共事多年cr,@NG@nJ|04ZzY4i。他们发现转化生长因子-β帮助治愈伤口,且在身体防御系统对抗疾病中其重要作用wbrtu%o9h]Q2T1zE,@。同时,这两位科学家还发现这种蛋白质还能帮助一些细胞中癌的生长.mZemHSKNQn1。1983年至2002年期间,安妮塔·罗伯茨发表了340多篇论文0QD.=r-2ad=nGZZXq。许多其他科学家对她的文章表示赞许Y[,h--@aM]=。事实上,《科学观察》将她列为20年间世界上第49位被引用最多的研究人员,第三位被引用最多的女性科学家c(y(4Xrdsw。但在2004年,在研究癌症多年后,安妮塔·罗伯茨发现自己患上了这种疾病V*SxfI_Nl6@。2006年5月,64岁的她死于胃癌Pf7XhY%yif(Oc

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译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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重点单词
  • fevern. 发烧,发热,狂热 v. (使)发烧,(使)狂热
  • communityn. 社区,社会,团体,共同体,公众,[生]群落
  • controln. 克制,控制,管制,操作装置 vt. 控制,掌管,支
  • commissionn. 委员会,委托,委任,佣金,犯罪 vt. 委任,委托
  • cornn. 谷物,小麦,玉米 v. 形成(颗粒状),腌,(用谷
  • infectvt. 传染,感染
  • survivevt. 比 ... 活得长,幸免于难,艰难度过 vi.
  • preventv. 预防,防止
  • defensen. 防卫,防卫物,辩护 vt. 防守
  • proteinn. 蛋白质