This is Science in the News. I'm Shirley Griffith. And I'm Christopher Cruise. Today, we tell the stories of some medical heroes.
At the start of the 20th century, the United States Army had a Yellow Fever Commission. The Army wanted medical experts to study yellow fever and find a way to stop the disease. One team went to Cuba to test the idea that mosquitoes spread yellow fever. The team was led by Walter Reed, the Army doctor and scientist noted for his work on infectious diseases.
In August of 1900, the researchers began to raise mosquitoes and infect them with the virus. Nine of the Americans let the infected insects bite them. Nothing happened. Then, two more let the mosquitoes bite them. Both men developed yellow fever.
Dr. Jesse William Lazear
A doctor named Jesse William Lazear recognized that the mosquitoes that bit the last two men had been older than the others. Dr. Lazear proved that mosquitoes did carry yellow fever.
Dr. Lazear himself was also bitten. No one is sure how it happened. He said it happened accidentally as he treated others. But some people said he placed the mosquito on his arm as part of the experiment. Medical historians say he may have reported the bite as an accident so his family would not be denied money from his life insurance policy.
Jesse Lazear died of yellow fever. His death shocked the others on the team in Cuba. But they continued their work.
More people let themselves be bitten by mosquitoes. Others were injected with blood from the victims of yellow fever. Some people in this test group developed the disease, but all recovered to full health.
Members of the team praised the work by Jesse Lazear. They called it a sacrifice to research that led the way to one of the greatest medical discoveries of the century.
The research answered the question of how yellow fever was spread. Now the question was how to protect people. The researchers had a theory. They thought that people who were bitten by infected mosquitoes -- but recovered -- were protected in the future.
Nurse Clara Maass
To test this idea, the team in Cuba offered $100 to anyone who would agree to be bitten by infected mosquitoes. Nineteen people agreed. The only American was Clara Maass. She was a nurse who worked with yellow fever patients in Cuba.
Clara Maass was bitten by infected mosquitoes seven times between March and August of 1901. Only one of the nineteen people developed the disease -- until that August. Then seven people got yellow fever. Clara Maass died six days after she was bitten for the seventh time.
The experiment showed that the bite of an infected mosquito was not a safe way to protect people from yellow fever. Medical historians say the death of Clara Maass also created a public protest over the use of humans in yellow fever research. Such experiments ended.
Cuba and the United States both honored Clara Maass on postage stamps. And today a hospital in her home state of New Jersey is known as the Clara Maass Medical Center.
Dr. Joseph Goldberger
Joseph Goldberger was a doctor for the United States Public Health Service. In 1912, he began to study a skin disease that was killing thousands of people in the South. The disease was pellagra.
Dr. Goldberger traveled to the state of Mississippi where many people suffered from pellagra. He studied the victims and their families. Most of the people were poor. The doctor came to believe that the disease was not infectious, but instead related to diet.
He received permission from the state governor to test this idea at a prison. Prisoners were offered pardons if they took part. One group of prisoners received their usual foods -- mostly corn products. A second group ate meat, fresh vegetables and milk.
Members of the first group developed pellagra. The second group did not.
But some medical researchers refused to accept that a poor diet caused pellagra. For the South, pellagra was more than simply a medical problem -- there were other issues involved, including Southern pride.
So Dr. Goldberger had himself injected with blood from a person with pellagra. He also took liquid from the nose and throat of a pellagra patient and put them into his own nose and throat. He even swallowed pills that contained skin from pellagra patients.
An assistant also took part in the experiments. So did Dr. Goldberger's wife. None of them got sick. Later, the doctor discovered that a small amount of dried brewer's yeast each day could prevent pellagra.
Joseph Goldberger died of cancer in 1929. He was 55 years old. Several years later, researchers discovered the exact cause of pellagra -- a lack of the B vitamin known as niacin.
Matthew Lukwiya was the medical administrator of Saint Mary's Hospital in the Gulu District of northern Uganda. In 2000, the hospital was the center of treatment for an outbreak of Ebola. The virus causes severe bleeding. No cure is known. Doctors can only hope that victims are strong enough to survive.
Dr. Lukwiya acted quickly to control the spread of infection. He kept the people with Ebola separate from the other patients. He ordered hospital workers to wear protective clothing and follow other safety measures.
One day he had to deal with a patient who was dying of Ebola. The man had been acting out of control. The doctor knew him well. The patient was a nurse who worked at the hospital. The man was coughing and bleeding. Dr. Lukwiya violated one of his own rules -- he wore no protection over his eyes.
Matthew Lukwiya died from the virus in December of 2000. He was only 42 years old. Ugandans mourned his death. He was an important influence in the community. Experts say his work during the outbreak helped stop the Ebola virus from spreading out of control.
Dr. Carlo Urbani
On February 28, 2003, the Vietnam-France Hospital in Hanoi asked Carlo Urbani for help. The Italian doctor was an expert on communicable diseases. He was based in Vietnam for the World Health Organization.
The hospital asked Dr. Urbani to help identify an unusual infection. He recognized it as a new threat. He made sure other hospitals increased their infection-control measures.
On March 11th, Dr. Urbani developed signs of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Four days later, the World Health Organization declared it a worldwide health threat.
Carlo Urbani was the first doctor to warn the world of the disease that became known as SARS. He died of it on March 29, 2003. He was 46 years old.
Molecular Biologist Anita Roberts
Our final medical hero is an American: molecular biologist Anita Roberts. She was widely recognized by other researchers for her work with a protein called "transforming growth factor-beta." TGF-beta can both heal wounds and make healthy cells cancerous.
In 1976, Anita Roberts joined the National Cancer Institute, part of the National Institutes of Health. She worked for many years with another researcher -- Michael Sporn.
They found that TGF-beta helps to heal wounds and is important in the body’s defense system against disease. At the same time, though, the two scientists found that the protein can also support the growth of cancer in some cells.
Between 1983 and 2002, Anita Roberts published more than 340 research papers. Many other scientists gave credit to her published work. In fact, the publication Science Watch listed her as the 49th most-cited researcher in the world during that 20-year period. She was the third most-cited female scientist.
But in 2004, after years of studying cancer, Anita Roberts learned that she herself had the disease. She died of gastric cancer in May of 2006. She was 64 years old.
The industrial revolution, which started a couple of hundred years ago in Europe, is now spreading across the world.
Every year in this country more than 50,000 children are bitten by dogs.
3.life insurance 人寿保险
I have also taken out a life insurance policy on him just in case.
4.Others were injected with blood from the victims of yellow fever.
His son was injected with strong drugs.
5.They called it a sacrifice to research that led the way to one of the greatest medical discoveries of the century.
She sacrificed family life to her career.
6.The experiment showed that the bite of an infected mosquito was not a safe way to protect people from yellow fever.
Wild wood should be well protect from excessive hag.
赫塞·威廉·拉泽尔医生确认叮咬最后两个人的蚊子比其他的蚊子更大 。拉泽尔医生证实蚊子确实携带黄热病 。拉泽尔医生也被咬了 。没人确定这是怎么发生的 。他说是在他治疗其他人的时候不小心咬到的 。但是一些人说他把自己当成试验品，将蚊子放在自己的胳膊上 。医学史学家说他或许将叮咬上报成是意外，这样他的家人就能够得到人寿保险的赔款 。赫塞·拉泽尔死于黄热病 。他的死震惊古巴团队的其他人，但是他们仍继续自己的工作 。越来越多的人让自己被蚊子叮咬 。其他人则注射黄热病人的血液 。测试团队中的一些人染病，但他们全部都恢复了健康 。团队成员称赞了赫塞·拉泽尔的工作 。他们称这是为了研究而牺牲自己，正是这种牺牲带领大家通往本世纪最伟大医疗发现之一 。研究回答了黄热病如何传播的问题 。现在的问题是如何保护大家 。研究人员有了一种理论 。他们认为被感染蚊子叮咬的人—但仍未康复—应受到保护 。
为了测试这一想法，古巴的团队为同意被感染蚊子叮咬的人提供一百美元 。有19个人同意了 。其中唯一一个美国人是克拉拉·马斯 。她是在古巴和黄热病病人一同工作的护士 。在1901年3月到8月期间，克拉拉·马斯被感染蚊子叮咬了7次 。19个人中只有一个感染疾病—直到8月 。有7个人都得了黄热病 。克拉拉·马斯在被叮咬第7次的六天后死亡 。试验表明感染蚊子的叮咬并不是保护人们远离黄热病的安全方法 。医学史学家说克拉·马斯的死也建立了在黄热病研究中，对人类试验的保护 。此类试验被终止了 。古巴和美国都出版邮票纪念克拉拉·马斯 。如今克拉拉·马斯家乡新泽西州有一家叫做克拉拉马斯医疗中心的医院 。
约瑟夫·古德伯格是美国公共卫生局的一名医生 。1912年，他开始研究一种致南部数千人死亡的皮肤病——糙皮病 。古德伯格医生来到密西西比州，这里多人感染糙皮病 。他对患者和患者家人进行研究 。他们多数人都很贫穷 。医生逐步认为这种疾病是不传染的，但是却和饮食有关 。州长允许他在一间监狱里进行测试 。参与试验的犯人们将被赦免 。犯人中的一组人吃的是平常的食物—大多是玉米食品 。第二组吃的是肉、新鲜蔬菜和牛奶 。
但一些医疗研究员拒接接受是饮食引起糙皮病的说法 。在南部，糙皮病不仅是简单的医疗问题—其中还涉及到了其他的问题，包括南方人的自尊心 。所以古德伯格医生给自己注射了糙皮病病人的血液 。他还将从糙皮病病人鼻子和嗓子中提取的液体放进自己的鼻子和嗓子里 。他甚至吞下了含有糙皮病病人皮肤的药片 。一位助手也参与了试验，还有古德伯格医生的妻子 。他们都没有染病 。之后，医生发现每天服用少量啤酒酵母能够预防糙皮病 。1929年，55岁的约瑟夫·古德伯格死于癌症 。几年后，研究人员发现糙皮病的准确起因—缺乏维生素B，也就是烟酸 。
马修·卢克威亚是乌干达北部古卢地区圣玛丽医院的医药行政人员 。2000年，该医院是治疗埃博拉病毒的中心 。该病毒会引起严重出血且无药可医 。医生们只能希望患者们足够坚强得以存活 。卢克威亚医生为控制感染传播迅速做出行动 。他将埃博拉患者和其他病人分隔开 。他命令医院工作人员穿着防护衣，同时采取其他安全措施 。
一次他不得不处理一名埃博拉患者 。这个人已经失控 。医生认识他 。这个病人是医院里的护士 。病人咳嗽还出血 。卢克威亚医生违反了他自己的规定—他的眼部未佩戴防护装置 。2000年12月，马修·卢克威亚死于该病毒，年仅42岁 。乌干达人为他哀悼 。他对这个群体有着重要影响力 。专家表示他在埃博拉爆发期间的工作帮助阻止埃博拉病毒失控 。
2003年2月28日，河内越南法国医院寻求卡洛·乌尔巴尼的帮助 。这名意大利医生是传染病专家 。他是WHO驻扎越南的医生 。医院让乌尔巴尼医生帮助鉴定一种不常见的传染病 。他确认这是一种新威胁 。他确保其他医院提高了他们的感染控制措施 。3月11日，乌尔巴尼医生出现了严重的急性呼吸道症状 。四天后，WHO宣布这是一起全球范围内的健康威胁 。卡洛·乌尔巴尼是第一位警告世界这种疾病的医生，这种疾病即非典型肺炎 。他死于2003年3月29日，年仅46岁 。