日期:2013-03-29 10:20





Hello. It is nice to be with you again. I'm Jim Tedder in Washington.


Today we hear about some Africans who have moved to Moscow hoping for a better life.
Also a look inside the human body at trillions of tiny bugs that often are good for us. But first a story about women trying to compete in a "man's" world.


In the African nation of Sierra Leone, about 80 percent of all agricultural workers are women. Many are poor. While women have a right to work on farms, they often cannot own the land. But things are beginning to change. There are new efforts that give more power to women in rural areas. Abibatu Sankoh operates this machine at a place called Mile 91 in northern Sierra Leone. The device cleans rice before it is sold.


She says the machine helps her to work faster and sell more rice. She earns more money, and is now better able to feed her six children and pay their costs for schooling. Her community is taking part in a joint program between Sierra Leone and the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization. The program operates business centers that teach farmers better ways to market their products and keep records of what they sell.


David Mwesigwa is a manager of the program. He says women are given important jobs at the centers."Many are treasurers because of their trust of handling money. Many are secretaries because of their knowledge in terms of writing and record keeping. Those positions are very key."


But women in Sierra Leone find it difficult to own farm land. A woman has a legal right to her husband's property only after he dies and when he alone was the owner. In rural areas, local chiefs give land to men, while women are often left with no home after their husbands die. An independent Italian organization is teaching these women to read, and understand their rights. Roisin Cavanaugh is with Cooperazione Internazaionale.


"It is very difficult for women to advocate on behalf of themselves when they don't even know the documents they are putting their thumbprint to, when they could be signing their rights away to land. So we are trying to get women to a functional level of literacy."


Roisin Cavanaugh says her organization also has taught women how to appeal to get land returned to them. She says this has led to 120 lands rights cases. Probably half have resulted in women getting their land back or receiving payment for the land.


The human body contains about 10 trillion human cells. It also has about 100 trillion microbes. The microbes are naturally forming bacteria that can be helpful. Some are even necessary for good health. Taken together, all these cells and microbes make up what researchers call the human microbiome.


Now a Citizen Science project seeks to expand our understanding of this complex relationship. Bob Doughty has more. The microbes in our gut – the gastrointestinal tract – help process food and fight bacteria that cause disease.


University of Colorado scientist Rob Knight wants to learn what nutrients aid the helpful microbes, and understand how they act with each other.


"What this research could ultimately lead to is a world where no infectious disease goes undiagnosed." To reach this goal, he has launched an online campaign called the American Gut Project. People all over the world are invited to take part. They are sent questions about their diet, health and use of antibiotic drugs. They also are asked to collect microbes from their mouths, faces and waste material. Then, they return everything to Rob Knight's laboratory.




Chris Lauber directs the laboratory work. He says most studies of the human microbiome involve laboratory animals or people with a clear health problem. He believes that the openness of American Gut Project will provide new knowledge. "Anybody can enroll, and we don't care what their disease state is and whether they're on antibiotics. We just want to know about them. And what microbes are in their gut."


An increasing amount of research shows that gut microbes can easily be killed off. It happens through poor nutrition, overuse of antibiotic drugs, pollution and eating junk food. In countries with traditional food and less antibiotic use, health problems like allergies and asthma are less common than in the West. Everyone who takes part in the American Gut Project will get a report on the microbes they provided, comments about their diet and their answers to health questions.


After the collapse of the former Soviet Union, Africans in Russia started to face discrimination from white power extremists, or "skinheads." Christopher Cruise is following the story.
When Russian nationalist skinheads insult the "chyorni," or the blacks, they often mean Muslim immigrants from Central Asia. But thousands of Africa students also work and study in the Russian capital, Moscow. And they also are targets of hatred from the skinheads. Rukunayi Pisou has been one of these targets. He was born in the Democratic Republic of Congo, but now lives in Russia.


He told VOA that he once escaped 15 skinheads who chased him into a building. He said he jumped out a window, but suffered a broken foot.


Mister Pitsou says the Russian skinheads do not like seeing black people in Moscow. He says when the skinheads attack, they beat their victims without pity. A Protestant religious center in Moscow says it recorded 16 physical attacks against Africans in the capital last year. One victim died. Eric Merlain from Cameroon advises Africans not to get involved in fighting. "The only thing is for you to be very calm and avoid fighting. Because if they beat you, just look for a way and escape. If you engage in fighting you might lose your life."


Another Congolese immigrant, Peguy Nkodia, advises Africans not to come to Russia. He notes the expense of living there. Ibrahim from Mali says he earns 20 dollars a day passing out paper flyers. And he says this is not enough to survive on in Moscow. Mister Nkodia says African migrants sleep 10 people to one room. He says it is not the rich nation he dreamed of moving to when he lived in Kinshasa. He also advises Africans not to come to Russia if they do not have a job or a place in a university. Still, some Russians say people of color are still objects of friendly interest, as they were during Soviet rule.


A top official of the People's Friendship university says safety tips are given to hundreds of Africans who study at the school, once called Patrice Lumumba University. But he believes Moscow is now more accepting of African students.




1.compete 竞争;对抗


Compete only with yourself.


2.operate 操作;运转


The machine is operating continuously.


3.take part in 参与


Who will take part in your study ?


4.Roisin Cavanaugh says her organization also has taught women how to appeal to get land returned to them.


appeal to 上诉


He decided to appeal to a higher court.


5.Taken together, all these cells and microbes make up what researchers call the human microbiome.


make up 组成


The committee is made up of six women.


6.Eric Merlain from Cameroon advises Africans not to get involved in fighting.


get involved in 卷入


The best way out is for neither of us to get involved in Cambodia.




Abibatu Sankoh在塞拉利昂北部的一个叫做91公里的地方运行着这种机器.%2!U6gT+M@=J|7g。在稻米出售前,要用这种设备进行清理fOCy(JdX|ShGEgJs。她说这个机器帮助她快速工作并能卖掉更多的米BQz9j8r|7bd。她挣的钱更多了,现在足以更好的养育她的六个孩子并支付他们的学费F0(r2BUVhOjxUo。她所在的社区参加了一个塞拉利昂和联合国粮食及农业组织的联合项目ccuJSA2laSj%。该项目经营商业中心教农民更好的买卖他们的商品并做好销售记录vDZT9E%kS.Ga8z


但是塞拉利昂的女性发现要拥有一块农田很困难hKsJHNA9+SQfu3*d,Bm。一名女性只有在丈夫死后才能合法继承她丈夫的财产,且她的丈夫要是其财产的唯一拥有者T3l5SgbdyN4[5uYZ@。在偏远地区,当地首领给男人分配土地,而女性们在她们的丈夫死后,变得一无所有Pak2!rR^85dxQM!Ll。一个意大利独立组织教这些女性读书并让她们了解自己的权利;Nl4AxI5cr%k。Roisin Cavanaugh是国际合作组织一员Er!j+&cLV1b7kcKeYOJ@。“当女性们不知道她们按拇指印的文件是什么,当她们签署的文件可能是让她们放弃自己的土地权的时候,她们很难主张维护自己的权利qUBsfdseY(。所以我们尝试让女性掌握基本的读写能力WMc~+qwd_90[W-HqHLP。”

Roisin Cavanaugh表示她的组织还教这些女性如何呼吁拿回属于自己的土地VmCKAe%dPJSLQ(dvRQ8。她说这涉及120起土地权利案件grByG;W@C%VFQ,7。或许其中一半案件中的女性最后都拿回自己的土地或是收到赔偿款idrYzi4e5.Fn~9I5+3xf





但是数千名非洲学生也在俄罗斯首都莫斯科工作和学习7e+IX^@2WS@S8J*^fful。他们也成为了光头党仇恨的目标cW6juB-oxiU;sDdO+_6g。Rukunayi Pisou是这些目标中的一员&1~2ltJ=14g@J.2!。他出生于刚果民主共和国,但现在生活在俄罗斯t=osgg8rXa*。他告诉VOA,他曾从15名光头党的追捕中逃脱#l3U*gz7]rlRY~l。他们追到一栋建筑物,他说他跳出窗户,但腿断了1YSon|CD,V.4)L[

Pitsou先生说俄罗斯光头党不喜欢在莫斯科看到黑人sU^0b~,2HECL[n]Yv#a=。他说遭遇光头党袭击时,他们对待受害者毫不怜惜FP%ZDcG3=u。莫斯科一家新教徒宗教中心表示过去一年在莫斯科就有16起攻击非洲人事件cAqmQB)VPcyw@71O。一名受害者死亡Y^A(AFxH!gax*SC+Sy。来自喀麦隆的埃里克建议非洲人不要参与斗殴[|sR(NHeK9.j(j)KKm。“唯一一件事就是要非常镇定,避免斗殴mP-oP,MaZRNIFcLSqbn。因为如果他们打你,只能瞄准路逃跑t6,kP-e.E)bxmMCcdH。如果参与斗殴,你可能会丧命hyNWQ=Kqb5V。”另一位刚果移民Peguy Nkodia建议非洲人不要去俄罗斯D^,;gZsIv&n*5hp6,p。他强调俄罗斯的生活开支,svrLg(;^973)!*X。来自马里的Ibrahim表示他发传单一天挣20美元,在莫斯科生存远不够qz#F%K4[O%。Nkodia说非洲移民睡的是十人间JJ4GF2zU-kA2t+L-Ab7。他说这并不是一个他梦想中的富有国家T0BmxI8ft;S#_cY。他还建议非洲人不要来俄罗斯,如果他们没有工作也不是大学生KZm!Tqod_,NAJO。一些俄罗斯人说在苏维埃政府期间,大家对有色人种还是很友善的xh9C1WxiK54nVnNf。俄罗斯人民友谊大学高级官员给了学校百名非洲人一些安全建议但是他认为莫斯科现在对非洲学生的接受度更高Z6I.)FBN5X0



  • robv. 抢劫,掠夺
  • independentadj. 独立的,自主的,有主见的 n. 独立派人士,无
  • knightn. 骑士,爵士,武士 vt. 授以爵位
  • collectv. 收集,聚集 v. 推论 adv. 接收者付款
  • engagev. 答应,预定,使忙碌,雇佣,订婚
  • traditionaladj. 传统的
  • victimn. 受害者,牺牲
  • antibioticsn. 抗生素,抗生学
  • opennessn. 公开;宽阔;率真
  • communityn. 社区,社会,团体,共同体,公众,[生]群落