Advertising informs consumers about the existence and benefits of products and services and attempts to persuade them to buy them. The best form of advertising is probably word-of-mouth advertising which occurs when people tell their friends about the benefits of products or services that they have purchased. Yet virtually no providers of goods or services rely on this alone, but use paid advertising instead. Indeed many organizations also use institutional or prestige advertising which is designed to build up their reputation rather than to sell particular products. Although large companies could easily set up their own advertising departments, write their own advertisements and buy media space themselves, they tend to use the services of large advertising agencies. These are likely to have more resources and more knowledge about all aspects of advertising and advertising media than a single company. It is also easier for a dissatisfied company to give its account to another agency than it would be to fire its own advertising staff. The client company generally gives the advertising agency an agreed budget, a statement of the objectives of the advertising campaign, known as a brief and an overall advertising strategy concerning the message to be communicated to the target customers. The agency creates advertisements and develops a media plan, specifying which media will be used and in which proportions. Agencies often produce alternative ads or commercials that are pre-tested in newspapers, television stations, etc., in different parts of the country before a final choice is made prior to a national campaign.
广告告知消费者产品和服务的存在和益处，并试图说服消费者购买 。最好的广告形式可能是口口相传的广告，即人们将他们所购买产品和服务的优点告诉他们的朋友 。然而几乎没有产品和服务提供商仅依靠这种宣传方式，他们还会用付费广告宣传 。的确有许多公司用形象广告和商誉广告来提高他们的名声，而不采用销售特定产品的广告 。虽然大公司设立自己的广告部来构思广告、购买媒体空间很容易，但是他们倾向于和大型广告公司合作 。大型广告公司比单个公司有更多的资源，也更了解广告和广告媒介的方方面面 。如果公司对广告创意不满意，找其它公司讨说法比炒掉自己公司的广告人员要容易的多 。委托公司一般会给广告公司一份预算计划，一份广告宣传目标的说明，也就是要传达给目标客户的简短又全面的广告战略 。广告公司策划广告创意，制定媒介计划，详细说明会使用哪种媒介以及所占比例 。在最终广告方案进行全国宣传前，广告公司一般会准备备用广告方案，或在各地的报纸和电视台进行商业广告测试 。
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Questions 22. What is probably the best form of advertising according to the speaker?
Questions 23. What does the speaker say is the purpose of many organizations' using prestige advertising?
Questions 24. How do large companies generally handle their advertising?
Questions 25. What would advertising agencies often do before a national campaign?